Unit-3 Emergence Of The Modern World

In this unit we introduce the study of a very crucial period in human history in which the foundations of the modem world were laid.

Discuss in about ten lines some of the major consequences of geographical discoveries?

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Written on Apr 15, 2019 1:38:49 PM

  • The discovery of the sea-route to India led to the end of Venetian control and the establishment of the Portuguese monopoly over European trade with Asia.
  • The Portuguese were, however subsequently supplanted by the British, the Dutch and the French.
  • There was a tremendous increase in the volume of trade as well as in the articles of trade.
  • It marked also the beginning of the colonization of Asia, which in the following centuries was almost entirely subjugated by the European countries.
  • The colonization of Africa also began, though it was confined to the coastal areas.
  • The large scale conquest of Africa by the imperialist countries of Europe took place only in the nineteenth century.
  • In the Americas, the geographical discoveries were followed in a period of few decades with the destruction of the civilizations of the Incas and the Aztecs and the subjugation of the large indigenous population by a small number of Europeans.
  • The Europeans plundered the gold and silver of the Incas and the Aztecs and exploited the mines in Peru, Mexico and Bolivia for precious metals. Vast supplies of gold and silver reached Europe.
  • Commodities totally unknown or unavailable in Europe such as potatoes, tobacco and maize became available there and vast resources of the Americas for the production of sugar, coffee, nice and cotton began to be exploited for the benefit of the Europeans.
  • One of the significant developments following the conquest of the Americas by the Europeans was the introduction of the plantation system in North America, West Indies and Brazil, mainly for the production of sugar-cane, tobacco and cotton.
  • The prosperity of the European colonizers in the Americas was based on the serf and slave labor of the indigenous inhabitants of the Americans and Africans respectively.
  • This had a great impact on the development of Europe, particularly of those countries which were the forefront in establishing their colonies and control over other parts of the world and in international trade. These developments furthered the process of growth of capitalism.