In the areas occupied by the British new land revenue systems, such as the Permanent Settlement in Bengal and the Ryotwari system in other areas, were introduced. Both these were-alien to the subcontinent, and implied the superseding of the traditional rights of the village community over their land. Two forms of property now came into being. In Bengal where the Permanent Settlement was implemented, Zamindars became the intermediaries between the state and the peasants.
Even the severe famine caused no decline in the taxation, reflecting the unscrupulous greed of the new rulers. This created a severe crisis for the old Zamindars, who were now reduced to the status P of revenue farmers. The new land revenue arrangements also affected / the class of people dependant on State patronage, such as traditional scholars, fakirs, artists, etc. The revolts of the Zamindars and other dispossessed people formed the earliest responses to colonial power. The peasantry was the worst victim of the new system. The peasants reacted in the form of protest against the colonial oppression.