Unit-1 Imperialism And Colonialism - A Theoretical Perspective

This Unit presents a broad discussion of the phenomenon of imperialism arid colonialism.

Discuss in about ten lines the efforts made by the British to consolidate their position in India in the latter half of the 19th century.

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Written on Apr 24, 2019 5:09:17 PM

Following efforts made by the British to consolidate their position in India in the latter half of the 19th century.

1.Imperialist policies now replaced liberal imperialist policies. This was reflected in the viceroyalties of Lytton, Dufferin, Lansdowne and Curzon.

2.After 1850, a very large amount of British capital was invested in railways, loans to the Government of India, trade and to a lesser extent in plantations, coal mining, jute mills, shipping and banking in India.

3.Politically and administratively the third stage of colonialism meant renewed and more intensive control over India.

4.The administration now became more bureaucratically tight, efficient and extensive than earlier. Railways were built at even a faster rate. 

5. A major change now occurred in the ideology of colonialism. All talk of training the Indian  people for self-government died out.

6. The aim of British rule was declared to be permanent 'trusteeship' over the Indian people.

7. Indian people were declared to be a permanently immature, a 'child' people, needing British control and trusteeship.

8. Geography, 'race', climate, history, religion, culture and social organization were cited as factors which made Indians permanently unfit for self-government or democracy. Britain had, therefore, to exercise benevolent despotism over them for centuries to come.

9. Efforts at the transformation of India continued during this stage, though once again with meagre results. This was partly because of the financial constraints discussed earlier and also because of the rise of the national movement.

10. The British administrators increasingly assumed a neutral stand on social and cultural questions, and then began to support social and cultural reactionaries in the name of preserving indigenous institutions.