Unit-3 Emergence Of The Modern World

In this unit we introduce the study of a very crucial period in human history in which the foundations of the modem world were laid.

What do you understand by the term "Protestant Revolution"? Answer in about five lines.

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Learning Pundits Content Team

Written on Apr 15, 2019 1:33:43 PM

  • The Protestant Revolution can be said to have begun in 1517 when Martin Luther, a Monk of the Order of St. Augustine, nailed his ninety-five these or statements, attacking the sale of the indulgences, on the door of Church in Wittenberg in Germany.
  • He challenged people to come and hold disputations with him on his theses and sent copies of his theses to his friends in a number of cities.
  • Among the theses were the following: “Thus those preachers of indulgences are in error who say that, by the indulgences of the Pope, a man is loosened and saved from all punishment. They peach the man, who says the soul flies out of the purgatory as soon as the money thrown in the chest rattles.”
  • It is certain that, when the money rattles in the chest, avarice and gain may be increased, but the suffrage of the church depends on the will of God alone.
  • Christians should be taught that, as it would be the duty, so it would be the wish of the Pope, even to sell, if necessary the Basilica of St. Peter, and to give of his own money to very many of those from whom the preachers of pardons extract money.
  • During the next two years, Luther wrote a series of pamphlets expounding his doctrines and came to the conclusion that his doctrines could not be reconciled with those of the Catholic Church and that he had no alternative but to break with the Catholic Church. In 1520, the Pope ordered him to recant within sixty days or be condemned as a heretic.
  • He burnt the proclamation of the Pope in public. During all this period, he was protected by the ruler of Saxony who was his friend.
  • Many rulers in Germany were hostile to the Church and when Luther was ex-communicated, he remained unharmed.
  • During the next 25 years, he occupied himself with the talk of building an independent German Church - and in expounding his doctrine.
  • He rejected the entire system of the hierarchy of the Catholic Church, introduced German as the language of Church services, abolished monasticism and insisted on the right of priests to marry, abolished the special status of priests as representatives of God on earth, eliminated most of the Sacraments except baptism and the Eucharist, and emphasized faith rather than good works including pilgrimages and veneration of relics.
  • The highest priority was given to the doctrine of predestination and the supreme authority of the scriptures. Another important change was to abandon the view that the Catholic Church was supreme over the state.
  • The break with the Catholic Church was soon followed by revolts, first by the knights and then by lower classes, mainly peasants.
  • These revolts, on the one hand, helped in eliminating opposition to Luther; on the other, they showed the limitation of Luther's movement as a movement of radical, social and economic reform.
  • Luther sided with the rulers and the lords in suppressing the peasant revolt.
  • He advocated the hunting down of rebels like "mad dogs".
  • Among the rebels were people belonging to a sect called the Anabaptists who were considered the most radical reformers of the time.
  • They advocated complete separation of the Church and state, denied the necessity of the priests, denounced the accumulation of wealth and distinctions of rank, and considered it the duty of a Christian to share their things with each other. Luther, denouncing them, said: "There are heretics who hold that one should tolerate no authority that one should own no possessions leave house and home or should hold and keep all things common. Such are not only heretics but rebels, and therefore without doubt should be punished".

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