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Reading Comprehension

Reading Comprehension: English Reading Comprehension Exercises with Answers, Sample Passages for Reading Comprehension Test for GRE, CAT, IELTS preparation

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English Reading Comprehension Test Questions and Answers. Improve your ability to read and comprehend English Passages

Q181. > The subject “Good Governance” is both topical and timely. It is an > axiom of political science that a State comes into being for life but > it exists for good life. The duty of the state is not only to protect > life and liberty but goes further, to enable the people to live in a > measure of physical and mental comfort. Democracy is a government by > the citizens themselves. The people should realise that they are > responsible for choosing the right and proper persons to represent > them in national affairs. In colonial administration the government > was different from the people. Those governments ruled but without the > consent and concurrence of the people. This old concept still persists > in the masses today. They do not realise that the general election is > the occasion for them to choose a government for themselves. On the > contrary, the masses feel that the franchise is a patronage to be > conferred on their kith and kin, or the local candidate, or one of > their caste and religious fraternity. In mature democracies, a person > who changes his party affiliation or crosses the floor, seldom gets > re-elected by the electorate. They do not trust him to stand firm by > the policies and programmes proposed by him. In India a person who was > in the Congress Government and immediately thereafter in the Janata > Government and then in Chandrashekhar Government was re-elected and > came once again into the Congress Government! The electorate votes for > a criminal or a corrupt candidate, and bemoans that the country has a > bad government. The electorate does not realise that even as it > contributes to its own household expenditure, it has to contribute to > the country’s governance. It is easily misled by the unscrupulous > promises of political parties of free food, free clothes, free > electricity, free everything. Even enlightened people plead for tax > concessions, subsidies and incentives oblivious of the fact that they > are met by borrowings which in turn impose burdens indirectly on > themselves. Besides, in a true democracy, the people voluntarily > observe the laws, rules and regulations as they are forged by > themselves in the interest of good governance. It is only because 90% > of the people abide by the laws and 10% transgress them that the state > is able to maintain order and harmony. If the situation were reversed > with 90% transgressing the law and 10% abiding by it, there can be no > organised society, no peace and harmony. Some of the advanced > countries, notably Switzerland, have perhaps the highest degree of > compliance. A mere board stating that the road is closed will be > complied with by almost 100% of the people. Which of the following is true in the context of the passage?

  1.  Good governance is related to the welfare of the people.
  2.  We have a mature democracy in India.
  3.  The leaders who change parties face hurdles in getting re-elected in our country.
  4.  Colonial rule was much better than the present democracy.
  5.  None of these

Solution : Good governance is related to the welfare of the people.
Q182. > The subject “Good Governance” is both topical and timely. It is an > axiom of political science that a State comes into being for life but > it exists for good life. The duty of the state is not only to protect > life and liberty but goes further, to enable the people to live in a > measure of physical and mental comfort. Democracy is a government by > the citizens themselves. The people should realise that they are > responsible for choosing the right and proper persons to represent > them in national affairs. In colonial administration the government > was different from the people. Those governments ruled but without the > consent and concurrence of the people. This old concept still persists > in the masses today. They do not realise that the general election is > the occasion for them to choose a government for themselves. On the > contrary, the masses feel that the franchise is a patronage to be > conferred on their kith and kin, or the local candidate, or one of > their caste and religious fraternity. In mature democracies, a person > who changes his party affiliation or crosses the floor, seldom gets > re-elected by the electorate. They do not trust him to stand firm by > the policies and programmes proposed by him. In India a person who was > in the Congress Government and immediately thereafter in the Janata > Government and then in Chandrashekhar Government was re-elected and > came once again into the Congress Government! The electorate votes for > a criminal or a corrupt candidate, and bemoans that the country has a > bad government. The electorate does not realise that even as it > contributes to its own household expenditure, it has to contribute to > the country’s governance. It is easily misled by the unscrupulous > promises of political parties of free food, free clothes, free > electricity, free everything. Even enlightened people plead for tax > concessions, subsidies and incentives oblivious of the fact that they > are met by borrowings which in turn impose burdens indirectly on > themselves. Besides, in a true democracy, the people voluntarily > observe the laws, rules and regulations as they are forged by > themselves in the interest of good governance. It is only because 90% > of the people abide by the laws and 10% transgress them that the state > is able to maintain order and harmony. If the situation were reversed > with 90% transgressing the law and 10% abiding by it, there can be no > organised society, no peace and harmony. Some of the advanced > countries, notably Switzerland, have perhaps the highest degree of > compliance. A mere board stating that the road is closed will be > complied with by almost 100% of the people. What makes Switzerland a successful democracy?

  1.  Clear instructions regarding public concerns marked on boards, even on roadsides
  2.  High rate of literacy among the populace
  3.  Law-abiding citizens
  4.  Governance with a mission
  5.  None of these

Solution : Law-abiding citizens

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Q183. > The subject “Good Governance” is both topical and timely. It is an > axiom of political science that a State comes into being for life but > it exists for good life. The duty of the state is not only to protect > life and liberty but goes further, to enable the people to live in a > measure of physical and mental comfort. Democracy is a government by > the citizens themselves. The people should realise that they are > responsible for choosing the right and proper persons to represent > them in national affairs. In colonial administration the government > was different from the people. Those governments ruled but without the > consent and concurrence of the people. This old concept still persists > in the masses today. They do not realise that the general election is > the occasion for them to choose a government for themselves. On the > contrary, the masses feel that the franchise is a patronage to be > conferred on their kith and kin, or the local candidate, or one of > their caste and religious fraternity. In mature democracies, a person > who changes his party affiliation or crosses the floor, seldom gets > re-elected by the electorate. They do not trust him to stand firm by > the policies and programmes proposed by him. In India a person who was > in the Congress Government and immediately thereafter in the Janata > Government and then in Chandrashekhar Government was re-elected and > came once again into the Congress Government! The electorate votes for > a criminal or a corrupt candidate, and bemoans that the country has a > bad government. The electorate does not realise that even as it > contributes to its own household expenditure, it has to contribute to > the country’s governance. It is easily misled by the unscrupulous > promises of political parties of free food, free clothes, free > electricity, free everything. Even enlightened people plead for tax > concessions, subsidies and incentives oblivious of the fact that they > are met by borrowings which in turn impose burdens indirectly on > themselves. Besides, in a true democracy, the people voluntarily > observe the laws, rules and regulations as they are forged by > themselves in the interest of good governance. It is only because 90% > of the people abide by the laws and 10% transgress them that the state > is able to maintain order and harmony. If the situation were reversed > with 90% transgressing the law and 10% abiding by it, there can be no > organised society, no peace and harmony. Some of the advanced > countries, notably Switzerland, have perhaps the highest degree of > compliance. A mere board stating that the road is closed will be > complied with by almost 100% of the people. Which of the following suggestions may not be necessary to make India a mature democracy?

  1.  The voters should elect candidates with clean image.
  2.  The voters should not entertain candidates who frequently change their party and ideology.
  3.  The voters should shun their narrow interests while voting for their candidates.
  4.  The people should respect the law of the land.
  5.  None of these

Solution : None of these
Q184. > The subject “Good Governance” is both topical and timely. It is an > axiom of political science that a State comes into being for life but > it exists for good life. The duty of the state is not only to protect > life and liberty but goes further, to enable the people to live in a > measure of physical and mental comfort. Democracy is a government by > the citizens themselves. The people should realise that they are > responsible for choosing the right and proper persons to represent > them in national affairs. In colonial administration the government > was different from the people. Those governments ruled but without the > consent and concurrence of the people. This old concept still persists > in the masses today. They do not realise that the general election is > the occasion for them to choose a government for themselves. On the > contrary, the masses feel that the franchise is a patronage to be > conferred on their kith and kin, or the local candidate, or one of > their caste and religious fraternity. In mature democracies, a person > who changes his party affiliation or crosses the floor, seldom gets > re-elected by the electorate. They do not trust him to stand firm by > the policies and programmes proposed by him. In India a person who was > in the Congress Government and immediately thereafter in the Janata > Government and then in Chandrashekhar Government was re-elected and > came once again into the Congress Government! The electorate votes for > a criminal or a corrupt candidate, and bemoans that the country has a > bad government. The electorate does not realise that even as it > contributes to its own household expenditure, it has to contribute to > the country’s governance. It is easily misled by the unscrupulous > promises of political parties of free food, free clothes, free > electricity, free everything. Even enlightened people plead for tax > concessions, subsidies and incentives oblivious of the fact that they > are met by borrowings which in turn impose burdens indirectly on > themselves. Besides, in a true democracy, the people voluntarily > observe the laws, rules and regulations as they are forged by > themselves in the interest of good governance. It is only because 90% > of the people abide by the laws and 10% transgress them that the state > is able to maintain order and harmony. If the situation were reversed > with 90% transgressing the law and 10% abiding by it, there can be no > organised society, no peace and harmony. Some of the advanced > countries, notably Switzerland, have perhaps the highest degree of > compliance. A mere board stating that the road is closed will be > complied with by almost 100% of the people. With which stream does the author seem to be related?

  1.  Sociology
  2.  History
  3.  Political Science
  4.  Constitution of India
  5.  None of these

Solution : Political Science

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Q185. > Corruption is a broad term covering a wide range of misuse of > entrusted funds and power for personal gain i.e. Theft, fraud, > nepotism, abuse of power etc. A corrupt act is often - but not > necessarily - illegal. In handling corruption, you will often face a > Gray zones and dilemmas. In many countries, corruption is everywhere > and daily life is riddled with situations in the Gray zone between > legal and illegal. Many people accept petty corruption as a fact of > life. But the causes might differ, however, whether corruption results > from a need, a culture or simply from an opportunity too tempting not > to exploit, it influences the way we deal with it - or don’t deal with > it. Corruption can occur on different scales. There is corruption that > occurs as small favors between a small number of people (petty > corruption), corruption that affects the government on a large scale > (grand corruption), and corruption that is so prevalent that it is > part of the everyday structure of society, including corruption as one > of the symptoms of organized crime (systemic corruption). The main > reason for the spread of corruption is that the people in the highest > seat of power are corrupt unless the people at the top rung of power > are honest and free from corruption; there is absolutely no > possibility of eradicating corruption. If there is widespread > corruption in India , it is because the people at the top are really > corrupt .No subordinate will have to guts to be corrupt if the people > at the top of the administration are honest and take stern action > against the corrupt people .They cannot be harsh to the corrupt people > , since it is through the corrupt subordinates that the people at the > top get their share of the bribes .If one can make a discrete enquiry > with the pavement traders, he can find out how much the police and the > corporation councilors collect from the pavement traders .They say > that the money so collected is shared by people from the top to the > bottom. If the head is corrupt, what will the limbs do? The causes of > corruption in India also include excessive regulations, complicated > taxes and licensing systems, numerous government departments each with > opaque bureaucracy and discretionary powers, monopoly by government > controlled institutions on certain goods and services delivery, and > the lack of transparent laws and processes. There are significant > variations in level of corruption as well as in state government > efforts to reduce corruption across India. > > A 2005 study done by Transparency International in India found that > more than 62% of the people had firsthand experience of paying bribe > or peddling influence to get a job done in a public office. Taxes and > bribes are common between state borders; Transparency International > estimates that truckers pay annually 22,200 crores (US$ 4.5 billion) > in bribes. Government regulators and police share in bribe money, each > to the tune of 43% and 45% respectively. The en route stoppages > including those at checkpoints and entry-points take up to 11 hours in > a day. About 60% of these (forced) stoppages on road by concerned > authorities such as government regulators, police, forest, sales and > excise, octroi, weighing and measuring department are for extorting > money. The loss in productivity due to these stoppages is an important > national concern. The number of truck trips could increase by 40%, if > forced delays are avoided. According to a 2007 World Bank published > report, the travel time for a Delhi-Mumbai trip can be reduced by > about 2 days per trip if the corruption and associated regulatory > stoppages to extract bribes was eliminated. How many rupees are paid by truckers annually as per the study of transparency international?

  1.  US $ 5.5 billion
  2.  Rs. 22, 000 crore
  3.  Rs. 22, 200 crore
  4.  US $ 4 billion
  5.  None of these

Solution : Rs. 22, 200 crore
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