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Reading Comprehension

Reading Comprehension: English Reading Comprehension Exercises with Answers, Sample Passages for Reading Comprehension Test for GRE, CAT, IELTS preparation

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Q241. > Management education gained new academic stature within US > Universities and greater respect from outside during the 1960s and > 1970s. Some observers attribute the competitive superiority of US > corporations to the quality of business education. In 1978, a > management professor, Herbert A. Simon of Carnegie Mellon University, > won the Nobel Prize in economics for his work in decision theory. And > the popularity of business education continued to grow since 1960’s > and the MBA has become known as the passport to the good life. By the > 1980s, however, US business schools faced critics who charged that > learning had little relevance to real business problems. Some went so > far as to blame business schools for the decline in US > competitiveness. Amidst the criticisms, four distinct arguments may be > discerned. The first is that business schools must be either > unnecessary or deleterious because Japan does so well without them. > Underlying these arguments is the idea that management ability cannot > be taught-one is either born with it or must acquire it over years of > practical experience. A second argument is that business schools are > overly academic and theoretical. They teach quantitative models that > have little application to real world problems. Third, they give > inadequate attention to shop floor issues, to production processes and > to management resources. Finally, it is argued that they encourage > undesirable attitudes in students, such as placing value in the short > term, on bottom line targets, while neglecting longer term > developmental criteria. In summary, some business executives complain > that MBA’s are incapable of making day-to-day peritoneal decisions, > unable to communicate and to motivate people, and unwilling to accept > responsibility for following through implementation plans. We shall > analyze these criticisms after having reviewed experiences in other > countries. In contrast to be the expansion and development of business > education in the United States and more recently in Europe, Japanese > business schools graduate no more than two hundred MBA’s each year. > The Keio Business School (KBS) was the only graduate school of > management in the entire country until the mid 1970s and it still > boasts the only two-year masters programme. The absence of business > schools in Japan would appear in contradiction with the high priority > placed upon learning by its Confucian culture. Confucian colleges > taught administrative skills as early as 1630 and Japan wholeheartedly > accepted Western learning following the Meiji restoration of 1868 when > hundreds of students were dispatched to universities in the U.S.A., > Germany, England and France, to learn the secrets of western > technology and modernization. Moreover, the Japanese educational > system is highly developed and intensely competitive and can be > credited for raising the literary and mathematical abilities of the > Japanese to the highest level in the world. Until recently, Japanese > corporations have not been interested in using either local or foreign > business schools for the development of their future executives. Their > in-company-training programmers have sought the socialization of > newcomers, the younger the better. The training is highly specific and > those who receive it. Have neither the capacity nor the incentive to > quit. The prevailing belief says Imai, is that management should be > borne out of experience and many years of effort and not learnt from > educational institutions. A 1960 survey of Japanese senior executives > confirmed that a majority (54%) believed that managerial capabilities > can be attained only on the job and not in universities. However, this > view seems to be changing, the same survey revealed that even as early > as 1960, 37% of senior executives felt that the universities should > teach integrate professional management. In the 1980s, a combination > of increased competitive pressures and greater multi-nationalisation > of Japanese business are making the Japanese take a fresh look at > Management Education. The author argues that the Japanese system

  1.  is better that the American system
  2.  is highly productive and gives corporate leadership a long-term view as a result of its strong traditionis highly productive and gives corporate leadership a long-term view as a result of its strong traditions.
  3.  is slowly becoming Americanised.
  4.  succeeds without business schools, whereas the U.S. system fails because of it.
  5.  Japanese corporations do not hire MBAs because of traditions of universal and rigorous academic education, lifelong employment and strong group identification.

Solution : is highly productive and gives corporate leadership a long-term view as a result of its strong traditionis highly productive and gives corporate leadership a long-term view as a result of its strong traditions.
Q242. > How quickly things change in the technology business! A decade ago, > IBM was the awesome and undisputed king of the computer trade, > universally feared and respected. A decade ago, two little companies > called Intel and Microsoft were mere blips on the radar screen of the > industry, upstart startups that had signed on to make the chips and > software for IBM’s new line of personal computers. Though their > products soon became industry standards, the two companies remained > protected children of the market leader. What has happened since is a > startling reversal of fortune? IBM is being ravaged by the worst > crisis in the company’s 79-year history. It is undergoing its fifth > restructuring in the past seven years as well as seemingly endless > rounds of job cuts and firings that have eliminated 100,000 jobs since > 1985. Last week, IBM announced to its shell-shocked investors that it lost $4.97 billion last year-the biggest loss in American corporate > history. And just when IBM is losing ground in one market after > another, Intel and Microsoft have emerged as the computer industry’s > most fearsome pair of competitors. The numbers on Wall Street tell a > stunning story. Ten years ago, the market value of the stock of Intel > and Microsoft combined amounted to about a tenth of IBM’s. Last week, > with IBM’s stock at an 11 year low, Microsoft’s value surpassed its > old mentor’s for the first time even ($26.76 billion to $26.48 > billion), and Intel ($24.3 billion) is not far behind. While IBM is > posting losses, Intel’s profits jumped 30% and Microsoft’s rose 44%. > Both Intel, the world’s largest supplier of computer chips, and > Microsoft, the world’s largest supplier of computer software, have > assumed the role long played by Big Blue as the industry’s pacesetter. > What is taking place is a generational shift unprecedented in the > information age – one that recalls transition in the U.S. auto > industry 70 years ago, when Alfred Sloan’s upstart General Motors > surpassed Ford Motors as America’s No. 1 car maker. The transition > also reflects the decline of computer manufacturers such as IBM, Wang > and Unisys, and the rise of companies like Microsoft, Intel and AT & T > that create the chips and software to make the computers work. Just > like Dr. Frankenstein, IBM created these two monster competitors, says > Richard Shaffer, publisher of the Computer Letter. Now, even IBM is in > danger of being trampled by the creations it unleashed. Although Intel > and Microsoft still have close relationships with Big Blue, there is > little love lost between IBM and its potent progeny. IBM had an ugly > falling-out with former partner Microsoft over the future of > personal-computer software. Microsoft developed the now famous disk > operating system for the IBM-PC called DOS–and later created the > operating software for the next generation of IBM personal computers, > the Personal System/2. When PS/2 and its operating system, OS/3, > failed to catch on, a feud erupted over how the two companies would > upgrade the system. Although they publicly patched things up, the > partnership was tattered. IBM developed its own version of OS/3, which > has so far failed to capture the industry’s imagination, Microsoft’s > competing version, dubbed New Technology, or NT, will debut in a few > moths and will incorporate Microsoft’s highly successful Windows > program, which lets users juggle several programs at once. Windows NT > however, will offer more new features, such as the ability to link > many computers together in a network and to safeguard them against > unauthorized use. IBM and Intel have also been parting company. After > relying almost exclusively on the Santa Clara California company for > the silicon chips that serve as computer brains, IBM has moved to > reduce its dependence on Intel by turning to competing vendors. In > Europe, IBM began selling a low-cost line of PCs called Ambra, which > runs on chips made by Intel rival Advanced Micro Devices. IBM also > demonstrated a sample PC using a chip made by another Intel enemy, > Cyrix. And last October, IBM said it would begin selling the company’s > own chips to outsiders, in direct competition with Intel. IBM clearly > feels threatened. And the wounded giant still poses the biggest threat > to any future dominance by Intel and Microsoft. Last year, it teamed > up with both companies’ most bitter rivals–Apple Computers and > Motorola–to develop advanced software and microprocessors for a new > generation of desktop computers. In selecting Apple and Motorola, IBM > bypassed its longtime partners. Just as Microsoft’s standard > operations system runs only on computers built around Intel’s computer > chips, Apple’s software runs only on Motorola’s chips. Although IBM > has pledged that the new system will eventually run on a variety of > machines, it will initially run only computer programs written for > Apple’s Macintosh or IBM’s OS/2. Its competitive juices now flowing, > IBM last week announced that it and Apple Computer will deliver the > operating system in 1994–a year ahead of schedule. As a result of greater competition in the US Computer industry:

  1.  Some computer companies are expanding while others are contracting.
  2.  Employment in the industry is going down.
  3.  The industry is becoming more monopolized.
  4.  The share value of IBM is going up relative to that of Intel and Microsoft.
  5.  General Motors broke away from Ford Motors.

Solution : Some computer companies are expanding while others are contracting.

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Q243. > How quickly things change in the technology business! A decade ago, > IBM was the awesome and undisputed king of the computer trade, > universally feared and respected. A decade ago, two little companies > called Intel and Microsoft were mere blips on the radar screen of the > industry, upstart startups that had signed on to make the chips and > software for IBM’s new line of personal computers. Though their > products soon became industry standards, the two companies remained > protected children of the market leader. What has happened since is a > startling reversal of fortune? IBM is being ravaged by the worst > crisis in the company’s 79-year history. It is undergoing its fifth > restructuring in the past seven years as well as seemingly endless > rounds of job cuts and firings that have eliminated 100,000 jobs since > 1985. Last week, IBM announced to its shell-shocked investors that it lost $4.97 billion last year-the biggest loss in American corporate > history. And just when IBM is losing ground in one market after > another, Intel and Microsoft have emerged as the computer industry’s > most fearsome pair of competitors. The numbers on Wall Street tell a > stunning story. Ten years ago, the market value of the stock of Intel > and Microsoft combined amounted to about a tenth of IBM’s. Last week, > with IBM’s stock at an 11 year low, Microsoft’s value surpassed its > old mentor’s for the first time even ($26.76 billion to $26.48 > billion), and Intel ($24.3 billion) is not far behind. While IBM is > posting losses, Intel’s profits jumped 30% and Microsoft’s rose 44%. > Both Intel, the world’s largest supplier of computer chips, and > Microsoft, the world’s largest supplier of computer software, have > assumed the role long played by Big Blue as the industry’s pacesetter. > What is taking place is a generational shift unprecedented in the > information age – one that recalls transition in the U.S. auto > industry 70 years ago, when Alfred Sloan’s upstart General Motors > surpassed Ford Motors as America’s No. 1 car maker. The transition > also reflects the decline of computer manufacturers such as IBM, Wang > and Unisys, and the rise of companies like Microsoft, Intel and AT & T > that create the chips and software to make the computers work. Just > like Dr. Frankenstein, IBM created these two monster competitors, says > Richard Shaffer, publisher of the Computer Letter. Now, even IBM is in > danger of being trampled by the creations it unleashed. Although Intel > and Microsoft still have close relationships with Big Blue, there is > little love lost between IBM and its potent progeny. IBM had an ugly > falling-out with former partner Microsoft over the future of > personal-computer software. Microsoft developed the now famous disk > operating system for the IBM-PC called DOS–and later created the > operating software for the next generation of IBM personal computers, > the Personal System/2. When PS/2 and its operating system, OS/3, > failed to catch on, a feud erupted over how the two companies would > upgrade the system. Although they publicly patched things up, the > partnership was tattered. IBM developed its own version of OS/3, which > has so far failed to capture the industry’s imagination, Microsoft’s > competing version, dubbed New Technology, or NT, will debut in a few > moths and will incorporate Microsoft’s highly successful Windows > program, which lets users juggle several programs at once. Windows NT > however, will offer more new features, such as the ability to link > many computers together in a network and to safeguard them against > unauthorized use. IBM and Intel have also been parting company. After > relying almost exclusively on the Santa Clara California company for > the silicon chips that serve as computer brains, IBM has moved to > reduce its dependence on Intel by turning to competing vendors. In > Europe, IBM began selling a low-cost line of PCs called Ambra, which > runs on chips made by Intel rival Advanced Micro Devices. IBM also > demonstrated a sample PC using a chip made by another Intel enemy, > Cyrix. And last October, IBM said it would begin selling the company’s > own chips to outsiders, in direct competition with Intel. IBM clearly > feels threatened. And the wounded giant still poses the biggest threat > to any future dominance by Intel and Microsoft. Last year, it teamed > up with both companies’ most bitter rivals–Apple Computers and > Motorola–to develop advanced software and microprocessors for a new > generation of desktop computers. In selecting Apple and Motorola, IBM > bypassed its longtime partners. Just as Microsoft’s standard > operations system runs only on computers built around Intel’s computer > chips, Apple’s software runs only on Motorola’s chips. Although IBM > has pledged that the new system will eventually run on a variety of > machines, it will initially run only computer programs written for > Apple’s Macintosh or IBM’s OS/2. Its competitive juices now flowing, > IBM last week announced that it and Apple Computer will deliver the > operating system in 1994–a year ahead of schedule. Why is something that happened 70 years ago in the US auto industry being mentioned here?

  1.  General Motors broke away from Ford Motors.
  2.  A new company went ahead of an established market leader.
  3.  Like Dr. Frankenstein, Ford Motor created a monster in General Motors.
  4.  Microsoft, Intel and AT & T were originally created by IBM.
  5.  Consumers gain because of competition among producers.

Solution : A new company went ahead of an established market leader.
Q244. > How quickly things change in the technology business! A decade ago, > IBM was the awesome and undisputed king of the computer trade, > universally feared and respected. A decade ago, two little companies > called Intel and Microsoft were mere blips on the radar screen of the > industry, upstart startups that had signed on to make the chips and > software for IBM’s new line of personal computers. Though their > products soon became industry standards, the two companies remained > protected children of the market leader. What has happened since is a > startling reversal of fortune? IBM is being ravaged by the worst > crisis in the company’s 79-year history. It is undergoing its fifth > restructuring in the past seven years as well as seemingly endless > rounds of job cuts and firings that have eliminated 100,000 jobs since > 1985. Last week, IBM announced to its shell-shocked investors that it lost $4.97 billion last year-the biggest loss in American corporate > history. And just when IBM is losing ground in one market after > another, Intel and Microsoft have emerged as the computer industry’s > most fearsome pair of competitors. The numbers on Wall Street tell a > stunning story. Ten years ago, the market value of the stock of Intel > and Microsoft combined amounted to about a tenth of IBM’s. Last week, > with IBM’s stock at an 11 year low, Microsoft’s value surpassed its > old mentor’s for the first time even ($26.76 billion to $26.48 > billion), and Intel ($24.3 billion) is not far behind. While IBM is > posting losses, Intel’s profits jumped 30% and Microsoft’s rose 44%. > Both Intel, the world’s largest supplier of computer chips, and > Microsoft, the world’s largest supplier of computer software, have > assumed the role long played by Big Blue as the industry’s pacesetter. > What is taking place is a generational shift unprecedented in the > information age – one that recalls transition in the U.S. auto > industry 70 years ago, when Alfred Sloan’s upstart General Motors > surpassed Ford Motors as America’s No. 1 car maker. The transition > also reflects the decline of computer manufacturers such as IBM, Wang > and Unisys, and the rise of companies like Microsoft, Intel and AT & T > that create the chips and software to make the computers work. Just > like Dr. Frankenstein, IBM created these two monster competitors, says > Richard Shaffer, publisher of the Computer Letter. Now, even IBM is in > danger of being trampled by the creations it unleashed. Although Intel > and Microsoft still have close relationships with Big Blue, there is > little love lost between IBM and its potent progeny. IBM had an ugly > falling-out with former partner Microsoft over the future of > personal-computer software. Microsoft developed the now famous disk > operating system for the IBM-PC called DOS–and later created the > operating software for the next generation of IBM personal computers, > the Personal System/2. When PS/2 and its operating system, OS/3, > failed to catch on, a feud erupted over how the two companies would > upgrade the system. Although they publicly patched things up, the > partnership was tattered. IBM developed its own version of OS/3, which > has so far failed to capture the industry’s imagination, Microsoft’s > competing version, dubbed New Technology, or NT, will debut in a few > moths and will incorporate Microsoft’s highly successful Windows > program, which lets users juggle several programs at once. Windows NT > however, will offer more new features, such as the ability to link > many computers together in a network and to safeguard them against > unauthorized use. IBM and Intel have also been parting company. After > relying almost exclusively on the Santa Clara California company for > the silicon chips that serve as computer brains, IBM has moved to > reduce its dependence on Intel by turning to competing vendors. In > Europe, IBM began selling a low-cost line of PCs called Ambra, which > runs on chips made by Intel rival Advanced Micro Devices. IBM also > demonstrated a sample PC using a chip made by another Intel enemy, > Cyrix. And last October, IBM said it would begin selling the company’s > own chips to outsiders, in direct competition with Intel. IBM clearly > feels threatened. And the wounded giant still poses the biggest threat > to any future dominance by Intel and Microsoft. Last year, it teamed > up with both companies’ most bitter rivals–Apple Computers and > Motorola–to develop advanced software and microprocessors for a new > generation of desktop computers. In selecting Apple and Motorola, IBM > bypassed its longtime partners. Just as Microsoft’s standard > operations system runs only on computers built around Intel’s computer > chips, Apple’s software runs only on Motorola’s chips. Although IBM > has pledged that the new system will eventually run on a variety of > machines, it will initially run only computer programs written for > Apple’s Macintosh or IBM’s OS/2. Its competitive juices now flowing, > IBM last week announced that it and Apple Computer will deliver the > operating system in 1994–a year ahead of schedule. Who is mentioned as the principal supplier or silicon chips to IBM?

  1.  HCL
  2.  AT & T
  3.  Microsoft
  4.  Cyrix
  5.  Intel

Solution : Intel

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Q245. > How quickly things change in the technology business! A decade ago, > IBM was the awesome and undisputed king of the computer trade, > universally feared and respected. A decade ago, two little companies > called Intel and Microsoft were mere blips on the radar screen of the > industry, upstart startups that had signed on to make the chips and > software for IBM’s new line of personal computers. Though their > products soon became industry standards, the two companies remained > protected children of the market leader. What has happened since is a > startling reversal of fortune? IBM is being ravaged by the worst > crisis in the company’s 79-year history. It is undergoing its fifth > restructuring in the past seven years as well as seemingly endless > rounds of job cuts and firings that have eliminated 100,000 jobs since > 1985. Last week, IBM announced to its shell-shocked investors that it lost $4.97 billion last year-the biggest loss in American corporate > history. And just when IBM is losing ground in one market after > another, Intel and Microsoft have emerged as the computer industry’s > most fearsome pair of competitors. The numbers on Wall Street tell a > stunning story. Ten years ago, the market value of the stock of Intel > and Microsoft combined amounted to about a tenth of IBM’s. Last week, > with IBM’s stock at an 11 year low, Microsoft’s value surpassed its > old mentor’s for the first time even ($26.76 billion to $26.48 > billion), and Intel ($24.3 billion) is not far behind. While IBM is > posting losses, Intel’s profits jumped 30% and Microsoft’s rose 44%. > Both Intel, the world’s largest supplier of computer chips, and > Microsoft, the world’s largest supplier of computer software, have > assumed the role long played by Big Blue as the industry’s pacesetter. > What is taking place is a generational shift unprecedented in the > information age – one that recalls transition in the U.S. auto > industry 70 years ago, when Alfred Sloan’s upstart General Motors > surpassed Ford Motors as America’s No. 1 car maker. The transition > also reflects the decline of computer manufacturers such as IBM, Wang > and Unisys, and the rise of companies like Microsoft, Intel and AT & T > that create the chips and software to make the computers work. Just > like Dr. Frankenstein, IBM created these two monster competitors, says > Richard Shaffer, publisher of the Computer Letter. Now, even IBM is in > danger of being trampled by the creations it unleashed. Although Intel > and Microsoft still have close relationships with Big Blue, there is > little love lost between IBM and its potent progeny. IBM had an ugly > falling-out with former partner Microsoft over the future of > personal-computer software. Microsoft developed the now famous disk > operating system for the IBM-PC called DOS–and later created the > operating software for the next generation of IBM personal computers, > the Personal System/2. When PS/2 and its operating system, OS/3, > failed to catch on, a feud erupted over how the two companies would > upgrade the system. Although they publicly patched things up, the > partnership was tattered. IBM developed its own version of OS/3, which > has so far failed to capture the industry’s imagination, Microsoft’s > competing version, dubbed New Technology, or NT, will debut in a few > moths and will incorporate Microsoft’s highly successful Windows > program, which lets users juggle several programs at once. Windows NT > however, will offer more new features, such as the ability to link > many computers together in a network and to safeguard them against > unauthorized use. IBM and Intel have also been parting company. After > relying almost exclusively on the Santa Clara California company for > the silicon chips that serve as computer brains, IBM has moved to > reduce its dependence on Intel by turning to competing vendors. In > Europe, IBM began selling a low-cost line of PCs called Ambra, which > runs on chips made by Intel rival Advanced Micro Devices. IBM also > demonstrated a sample PC using a chip made by another Intel enemy, > Cyrix. And last October, IBM said it would begin selling the company’s > own chips to outsiders, in direct competition with Intel. IBM clearly > feels threatened. And the wounded giant still poses the biggest threat > to any future dominance by Intel and Microsoft. Last year, it teamed > up with both companies’ most bitter rivals–Apple Computers and > Motorola–to develop advanced software and microprocessors for a new > generation of desktop computers. In selecting Apple and Motorola, IBM > bypassed its longtime partners. Just as Microsoft’s standard > operations system runs only on computers built around Intel’s computer > chips, Apple’s software runs only on Motorola’s chips. Although IBM > has pledged that the new system will eventually run on a variety of > machines, it will initially run only computer programs written for > Apple’s Macintosh or IBM’s OS/2. Its competitive juices now flowing, > IBM last week announced that it and Apple Computer will deliver the > operating system in 1994–a year ahead of schedule. The personal computer called Ambra is marketed by :

  1.  Cyrix
  2.  IBM
  3.  Intel
  4.  Microsoft
  5.  Infosys

Solution : IBM
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Solution :

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