conjunctions

Conjunctions

Tips and Self-Assessment Quiz On Conjunctions

Tips on Conjunctions

Tips on answering questions in English grammar related to Conjunctions

    1 Tips

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Learning Pundits Content Team

Written on Sep 28, 2017 8:59:59 PM

Grammar Rules with 10 Tips for using Conjunctions


What is a Conjunction?


A conjunction is a part of speech that is used to connect words, phrases, clauses, or sentences.  

Functions of Conjunction:

1.    Joins together sentences, and sometimes words.

2.    Makes sentences more compact. Example: ‘Sudhir is a good bowler and Sanjay is a good bowler’. Using conjunction we can say in short ‘Sudhir and Sanjay are good bowlers’.


NOTE: When conjunctions simply joins two words in a sentence, then the sentence can’t be dissolved into two separate, independent sentences. Example: Rumi and Ruhi are sisters.


Types of Conjunctions:


1.    Correlative Conjunction: used in pairs to join phrases or words that carry equal importance within a sentence (Either-or, Neither-nor, both-and, though-yet, whether-or, Not only-But also). Either take it or leave it.

2.    Compound Conjunction: formed when compound expressions are used as conjunctions (In order that, as well as, provided that, so that, as through, as soon as, as if etc.) Such an act would not be kind even if it were just.

3.    Coordinating Conjunction: coordinates or joins two or more sentences, main clauses, words or other parts of speech which are of equal importance or rank (for, and, nor, but, yet). Birds fly and fish swim.

4.    Subordinating Conjunctions: joins a clause to another one on which it depends for its full meaning or joins dependent clauses to independent clauses (after, because, if, that, though, although, till, before, unless, as, when, where, while). He ran away because he was afraid.


Tips on using Conjunctions:




Tip #1: Correlative Conjunctions

Placement of Correlative Conjunctions: When Conjunctions are used as Correlatives, each of the correlated words should be placed immediately before the words to be connected.

Example:

a)    He visited not only Mumbai, but also Pune. (Correct)

b)    He not only visited Mumbai, but also Pune. (Wrong)



Tip #2: Coordinating Conjunctions

Replacement of Coordinating Conjunctions: Any of the Coordinating Conjunctions, with the exception of ‘or, nor,’ may be omitted and its place taken by a comma, semicolon, or colon.

Example:

a)    Rama went out to play but Hari stayed in to work.

b)    Rama went out to play; Hari stayed in to work. (Conjunction ‘but’ replaced by ‘;’ mark)



Tip #3: Preposition and Conjunction

Prepositions cannot be used to connect two clauses: It should be followed by a noun or noun equivalent which acts as its object.

Certain words are used both as Prepositions and Conjunctions:

a)    Stay till Sunday. (‘till’ is a preposition here)

b)    We shall stay here till you return. (‘till’ is a conjunction here)

c)    The dog ran after the cat. (‘after’ is a preposition here)

d)    We came after they had left. (‘after’ is a subordinating conjunction here)



Tip #4: Conjunction, Relative Adverb, Relative Pronoun

Relative Adverb: is an adverb which introduces a relative clause. The relative adverbs are: where, when, whenever and wherever.

a)    I will never forget the day when I met Jane. (Here ‘when’ a is relative adverb)

b)    When the doorbell rang, my dog Rusty barked loudly. (Here ‘when’ acts as a subordinating conjunction is as the dog’s barking is dependent on the ringing of the bell)

Relative Pronoun is a pronoun which introduces a relative clause. The relative pronouns are: who, whom, which and whose.

a)    The boy whose sister works with me is a good designer. (Relative pronoun)

b)    I hired Satish, whose interior design work is top-notch. (Subordinating conjunction)



Tip #5: Since, Or

‘Since’ in the meaning of ‘from and after the time when’: it should be preceded by a verb in the present perfect tense, and followed by a verb in the simple past tense.

  •  Many things have changed since I left the city.

‘Since’ in the meaning of ‘because’:

  •  Since you will not work, you shall not eat.

 ‘Or’ in the meaning of introducing an alternative:

  •  He may study law or medicine, or engineering.

‘Or’ to mean ‘otherwise’:

  •  We must hasten or the train will leave.



Tip #6: Yet

‘Yet’ as conjunction: used when we want to emphasize that contrast to achieve a stronger effect.

  •  She can speak Hindi very well, yet she can’t write Hindi at all.

‘Yet’ as adverb: is used to talk about something over a period of time, up till now, sometimes with negative meanings and in questions.

a)    Isn’t the dinner ready yet?

b)    Don’t eat the mangoes. They’re not ripe yet.



Tip #7: If

‘If’ in the meaning of condition or supposition:

  •  If he is there, I shall see him.

‘If’ in the manner of an admission:

  •  If I am rude, I am at least honest.

‘If’ in the meaning of ‘whether’:

  •  I asked him if he would come to the party.

‘If’ in the meaning of ‘whenever’:

  •  If I face any problem, I will call you.



Tip #8: That

‘That’ to express a reason or cause, and is equivalent to ‘because’:

  •  He was annoyed that he was interrupted.

‘That’ to express a consequence, result, or effect:

  •  I am so tired that I cannot walk.

‘That’ as a Relative Pronoun to define a person, animal or thing:

  •  He went to the school that my father went to. (here ‘that’ is not joining sentences but defining an object, i.e., the school )



Tip #9: Than, Lest, Except

Than: as a Conjunction, follows adjectives and adverbs in the comparative degree.

  •  Oceans are bigger than seas (are).

Lest: as a Subordinating Conjunction to express fear or apprehension.

  • He is hesitant to speak out lest he be fired.

Except: used for introducing the only person, thing, or fact that is not included.

a)    I’d invite Paresh myself, except I don’t know where he lives. (conjunction)

b)    I haven’t invited anyone except Paresh. (here ‘except’ is a preposition followed by the noun ‘Paresh’)



Tip #10: While, Only

While: is used to mean ‘during the same time as’:

a)    While he was sleeping, a thief entered the house.

b)    The girls studied while the boys played.

While: to mean ‘whereas’

  •  While I have no money to spend, you have nothing to spend on.

Only: as a Conjunction, means ‘except that’ or ‘but’.

a)    She sings well, only that she forgets the lyrics in the middle.

b)    I would go with you, only I can’t take leave from office.


Spot the Errors:


Each of the following sentences will contain a mistake in the usage of Conjunctions. See if you can spot that mistake.


#1:

Either I’m feeling happy or sad, I try to keep a positive attitude. (Incorrect)

Whether I’m feeling happy or sad, I try to keep a positive attitude. (Correct)


#2:

Meera went to the market and Meera bought oranges. (Incorrect)

Meera went to the market and bought oranges. (Correct)


#3:

Will you please wait here as soon as I come back? (Incorrect)

Will you please wait here until I come back? (Correct)


#4:

I have spoken to Ritesh, and confirmed the time of meeting. (Incorrect)

I have spoken to Ritesh and confirmed the time of meeting. (Correct)


#5:

He not only called Amit, but Rita also. (Incorrect)

He called not only Amit, but also Rita. (Correct)


#6:

You won’t pass the test if you study. (Incorrect)

You won’t pass the test unless you study. (Correct)


#7:

I am living in Shillong since I left school in 2012. (Incorrect)

I have been living in Shillong since I left school in 2012. (Correct)


#8:

I will not go unless you also. (Incorrect)

I will not go unless you also do. (Correct)


#9:

I like coffee yet my wife prefers tea. (Incorrect)

I like coffee but my wife prefers tea. (Correct)


#10:

I am late because of the traffic was terrible. (Incorrect)

I am late because of the traffic. / I am late because the traffic was terrible. (Correct)



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conjunctions

Conjunctions

Tips and Self-Assessment Quiz On Conjunctions

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