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Reading Comprehension

Reading Comprehension: English Reading Comprehension Exercises with Answers, Sample Passages for Reading Comprehension Test for GRE, CAT, IELTS preparation

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English Reading Comprehension Test Questions and Answers. Improve your ability to read and comprehend English Passages

Q71. > Our research finds Indian households, on average, lack access to 46% > of the basic services they need, and the extent of their deprivation > varies across districts. From 2004-05 to 2011-12, public spending on > basic services rose faster than GDP, but its impact on poverty > reduction was limited by leakage, wastage or ineffectiveness. By > contrast, almost three-quarters of the reduction in India’s > Empowerment Gap during this period came from jobs and productivity > growth. Without major reforms, our research suggests, 36% of the > population could remain below the Empowerment Line in 2022 and 12% > would remain trapped in extreme poverty. But by focusing on job > creation, higher productivity and improved delivery of services, India > can reduce the population below the Empowerment Line to 7% and extreme > poverty can be virtually eradicated by 2022. For this, three pillars > are essential: first, India needs to add another 115 million non-farm > jobs over the next decade, with the manufacturing and construction > sectors, along with labor-intensive services, such as tourism, forming > the backbone. Second, India’s farms need to double their rate of > productivity growth rate in order to bring farm yields in line with > those in other emerging Asian countries. These two pillars contribute > almost three-quarters of the improvement we envision. Finally, India > needs to revamp the way it delivers basic services so that every rupee > of increased public spending can go further. The nationwide efficiency > of basic services can reach 75%, up from 50% currently, if all states > match standards already set by India’s best-performing ones. Public > spending on basic services is an important fourth level, and this > needs to grow at a more modest 6.7% annually. > > Beyond meeting food, energy and housing subsidy commitments, much of > the increase must be channeled into expansion of healthcare, water and > sanitation systems. Unleashing broad-based job and productivity growth > will require reforms that remove barriers to competitiveness and > investment — not just for large businesses, but for millions of small > enterprises that struggle to expand. Measures can also be taken to > make the labor market more flexible; states taking these steps have > been more successful in creating jobs. Focused public investment can > seed industrial clusters, tourism circuits and food processing parks, > generating jobs in regions where the need is greatest. Similarly, farm > yields can be raised by increasing investment in infrastructure, > research and technology, and by streamlining agricultural bureaucracy > to make its policies and extension services more farmer-centric. A > shift to growth-oriented investment can pay back through higher tax > revenues, helping achieve India’s combined fiscal deficit target of 6% > by 2017. Better governance will also be required to transform the way > India delivers basic services, as the poor feel these failures most > acutely in their day-to-day lives. The time has come to put job > creation, productivity improvement and effective public service > delivery at the centre of India’s national agenda. Which of the following is definitely true according to the passage ?

  1.  If voluntary organizations were to make a massive effort to take up the millennium development goals, the India's citizencan make deep inroads in the fight against hunger.
  2.  Despite widespread poverty in the country, India is on track to meet the United Nations' MDG of poverty reduction by 2015.
  3.  If the current pace continues, India will meet the poverty reduction target by 2015.
  4.  All of the above
  5.  None of these

Solution : None of these
Q72. > Our research finds Indian households, on average, lack access to 46% > of the basic services they need, and the extent of their deprivation > varies across districts. From 2004-05 to 2011-12, public spending on > basic services rose faster than GDP, but its impact on poverty > reduction was limited by leakage, wastage or ineffectiveness. By > contrast, almost three-quarters of the reduction in India’s > Empowerment Gap during this period came from jobs and productivity > growth. Without major reforms, our research suggests, 36% of the > population could remain below the Empowerment Line in 2022 and 12% > would remain trapped in extreme poverty. But by focusing on job > creation, higher productivity and improved delivery of services, India > can reduce the population below the Empowerment Line to 7% and extreme > poverty can be virtually eradicated by 2022. For this, three pillars > are essential: first, India needs to add another 115 million non-farm > jobs over the next decade, with the manufacturing and construction > sectors, along with labor-intensive services, such as tourism, forming > the backbone. Second, India’s farms need to double their rate of > productivity growth rate in order to bring farm yields in line with > those in other emerging Asian countries. These two pillars contribute > almost three-quarters of the improvement we envision. Finally, India > needs to revamp the way it delivers basic services so that every rupee > of increased public spending can go further. The nationwide efficiency > of basic services can reach 75%, up from 50% currently, if all states > match standards already set by India’s best-performing ones. Public > spending on basic services is an important fourth level, and this > needs to grow at a more modest 6.7% annually. > > Beyond meeting food, energy and housing subsidy commitments, much of > the increase must be channeled into expansion of healthcare, water and > sanitation systems. Unleashing broad-based job and productivity growth > will require reforms that remove barriers to competitiveness and > investment — not just for large businesses, but for millions of small > enterprises that struggle to expand. Measures can also be taken to > make the labor market more flexible; states taking these steps have > been more successful in creating jobs. Focused public investment can > seed industrial clusters, tourism circuits and food processing parks, > generating jobs in regions where the need is greatest. Similarly, farm > yields can be raised by increasing investment in infrastructure, > research and technology, and by streamlining agricultural bureaucracy > to make its policies and extension services more farmer-centric. A > shift to growth-oriented investment can pay back through higher tax > revenues, helping achieve India’s combined fiscal deficit target of 6% > by 2017. Better governance will also be required to transform the way > India delivers basic services, as the poor feel these failures most > acutely in their day-to-day lives. The time has come to put job > creation, productivity improvement and effective public service > delivery at the centre of India’s national agenda. Which of the following can be said poverty in India as given in the passage ?

  1.  India is estimated to have one–third of the world's poor.
  2.  Many girls are married off at an early age, become servants just to survive.
  3.  The poorest parts of India are Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, UP, Bihar, Jharkhand, Orissa, Chattisgarh and West Bengal.
  4.  42.5 percent of children in India suffer from chronic malnutrition.
  5.  None of these

Solution : None of these

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Q73. > Our research finds Indian households, on average, lack access to 46% > of the basic services they need, and the extent of their deprivation > varies across districts. From 2004-05 to 2011-12, public spending on > basic services rose faster than GDP, but its impact on poverty > reduction was limited by leakage, wastage or ineffectiveness. By > contrast, almost three-quarters of the reduction in India’s > Empowerment Gap during this period came from jobs and productivity > growth. Without major reforms, our research suggests, 36% of the > population could remain below the Empowerment Line in 2022 and 12% > would remain trapped in extreme poverty. But by focusing on job > creation, higher productivity and improved delivery of services, India > can reduce the population below the Empowerment Line to 7% and extreme > poverty can be virtually eradicated by 2022. For this, three pillars > are essential: first, India needs to add another 115 million non-farm > jobs over the next decade, with the manufacturing and construction > sectors, along with labor-intensive services, such as tourism, forming > the backbone. Second, India’s farms need to double their rate of > productivity growth rate in order to bring farm yields in line with > those in other emerging Asian countries. These two pillars contribute > almost three-quarters of the improvement we envision. Finally, India > needs to revamp the way it delivers basic services so that every rupee > of increased public spending can go further. The nationwide efficiency > of basic services can reach 75%, up from 50% currently, if all states > match standards already set by India’s best-performing ones. Public > spending on basic services is an important fourth level, and this > needs to grow at a more modest 6.7% annually. > > Beyond meeting food, energy and housing subsidy commitments, much of > the increase must be channeled into expansion of healthcare, water and > sanitation systems. Unleashing broad-based job and productivity growth > will require reforms that remove barriers to competitiveness and > investment — not just for large businesses, but for millions of small > enterprises that struggle to expand. Measures can also be taken to > make the labor market more flexible; states taking these steps have > been more successful in creating jobs. Focused public investment can > seed industrial clusters, tourism circuits and food processing parks, > generating jobs in regions where the need is greatest. Similarly, farm > yields can be raised by increasing investment in infrastructure, > research and technology, and by streamlining agricultural bureaucracy > to make its policies and extension services more farmer-centric. A > shift to growth-oriented investment can pay back through higher tax > revenues, helping achieve India’s combined fiscal deficit target of 6% > by 2017. Better governance will also be required to transform the way > India delivers basic services, as the poor feel these failures most > acutely in their day-to-day lives. The time has come to put job > creation, productivity improvement and effective public service > delivery at the centre of India’s national agenda. What do you meant by labour market ? 1) In the labor market, employers compete to hire the best and the workers compete for the best satisfying job. 2) A labour market in an economy functions with demand and supply of labor. 3) The nominal market in which workers find paying work, employers find willing workers, and wage rates are determined.

  1.  Only 1 and 3
  2.  Only 1
  3.  Only 2
  4.  Only 2 and 3

Solution : Only 1 and 3
Q74. > Our research finds Indian households, on average, lack access to 46% > of the basic services they need, and the extent of their deprivation > varies across districts. From 2004-05 to 2011-12, public spending on > basic services rose faster than GDP, but its impact on poverty > reduction was limited by leakage, wastage or ineffectiveness. By > contrast, almost three-quarters of the reduction in India’s > Empowerment Gap during this period came from jobs and productivity > growth. Without major reforms, our research suggests, 36% of the > population could remain below the Empowerment Line in 2022 and 12% > would remain trapped in extreme poverty. But by focusing on job > creation, higher productivity and improved delivery of services, India > can reduce the population below the Empowerment Line to 7% and extreme > poverty can be virtually eradicated by 2022. For this, three pillars > are essential: first, India needs to add another 115 million non-farm > jobs over the next decade, with the manufacturing and construction > sectors, along with labor-intensive services, such as tourism, forming > the backbone. Second, India’s farms need to double their rate of > productivity growth rate in order to bring farm yields in line with > those in other emerging Asian countries. These two pillars contribute > almost three-quarters of the improvement we envision. Finally, India > needs to revamp the way it delivers basic services so that every rupee > of increased public spending can go further. The nationwide efficiency > of basic services can reach 75%, up from 50% currently, if all states > match standards already set by India’s best-performing ones. Public > spending on basic services is an important fourth level, and this > needs to grow at a more modest 6.7% annually. > > Beyond meeting food, energy and housing subsidy commitments, much of > the increase must be channeled into expansion of healthcare, water and > sanitation systems. Unleashing broad-based job and productivity growth > will require reforms that remove barriers to competitiveness and > investment — not just for large businesses, but for millions of small > enterprises that struggle to expand. Measures can also be taken to > make the labor market more flexible; states taking these steps have > been more successful in creating jobs. Focused public investment can > seed industrial clusters, tourism circuits and food processing parks, > generating jobs in regions where the need is greatest. Similarly, farm > yields can be raised by increasing investment in infrastructure, > research and technology, and by streamlining agricultural bureaucracy > to make its policies and extension services more farmer-centric. A > shift to growth-oriented investment can pay back through higher tax > revenues, helping achieve India’s combined fiscal deficit target of 6% > by 2017. Better governance will also be required to transform the way > India delivers basic services, as the poor feel these failures most > acutely in their day-to-day lives. The time has come to put job > creation, productivity improvement and effective public service > delivery at the centre of India’s national agenda. Which is not a basic need according to author ?

  1.  Education
  2.  Accommodation
  3.  Sanitation
  4.  Desire for respect and appreciation
  5.  Social security

Solution : Desire for respect and appreciation

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Q75. > Role of education in our life is vital as it reflects good > civilisation which spreads awareness in society about how we can be a > good social being and help others in our daily life. Education is also > a form of learning in which the knowledge, skills, and habits of a > group of people are transferred from one generation to the next > through teaching, training, or research. Education frequently takes > place under the guidance of others, but may also be autodidactic. Any > experience that has a formative effect on the way one thinks, feels, > or acts may be considered educational. Right to Education Act (RTE) is > an Indian legislation enacted by the Parliament of India on 4 August > 2009, which describes the modalities of the importance of free and > compulsory education for children between 6 and 14 in India under > Article 21(a) of the Constitution. India became one of 135 countries > to make education a fundamental right of every child when the act came > into force on 1 April 2010. To provide better education an amount is > released by Indian government every year. The Ministry of Finance > proposed an allocation of Rs. 65,869 crore for the sector in the > Union budget for 2013-14, an increase of a little over 7% from that > for the current fiscal year. > > Of the total education outlay, the flagship scheme Sarva Shiksha > Abhiyan (SSA) was allocated Rs. 27,258 crore for implementing the > Right to Education Act that promises education to all children in the > 6-14 age group. The previous Union Budget for 2012-13 had pegged an > outlay of Rs. 61,427 crore for education, including Rs. 25,555 crore > for SSA.But the quality of education provided by the government system > remains in question. As it’s suffering from shortages of teachers, > infrastructural gaps and several habitations continue to lack schools > altogether. There are also frequent allegations of government schools > being riddled with absenteeism and mismanagement and appointments are > based on political convenience. Despite the allure of free lunchfood > in the government schools, many parents send their children to private > schools. > > The condition of education is also pathetic in most of the countries > i.e. on 9 October 2012; Yousafzai was shot in the head and neck in an > assassination attempt by Taliban gunmen while returning home on a > school bus. But they could not succeed. The assassination attempt > sparked a national and international outpouring of support for > Yousafzai. Now Yousafzai may have become “the most famous teenager in > the world”. If the Right to Education Act is implemented properly in > all schools, students from the marginalised sections will be greatly > benefited. Another important fact is financial support for education. > The student could achieve this feat only because of the scholarship > scheme. The government should make sure that grants are disbursed on > time and deserving students should not have to wait. Which of the following best describe Right to Education Act (RTE)?

  1.  An Indian legislation enacted by the parliament of India on 4 August 2009.
  2.  An act, which provides education to all.
  3.  An act that describes the importance of free and compulsory education for children between 6 and and 14 in India.
  4.  All of the above
  5.  None of the above

Solution : An act that describes the importance of free and compulsory education for children between 6 and and 14 in India.
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