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Reading Comprehension

Reading Comprehension: English Reading Comprehension Exercises with Answers, Sample Passages for Reading Comprehension Test for GRE, CAT, IELTS preparation

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English Reading Comprehension Test Questions and Answers. Improve your ability to read and comprehend English Passages

Q96. > It was once believed that the brain was independent of metabolic > processes occurring elsewhere in the body. In recent studies, however, > we have discovered that the production and release in brain neurons of > the neurotransmitter serotonin (neurotransmitters are compounds that > neurons use to transmit signals to other cells) depend directly on the > food that the body processes. Our first studies sought to determine > whether the increase in serotonin observed in rats given a large > injection of the amino acid tryptophan might also occur after rats ate > meals that change tryptophan levels in the blood. We found that > immediately after the rats began to eat, parallel elevations occurred > in blood tryptophan, brain tryptophan, and brain serotonin levels. > These findings suggested that the production and release of serotonin > in brain neurons were normally coupled with blood-tryptophan > increases. In later studies, we found that injecting insulin into a > rat’s bloodstream also caused parallel elevations in blood and brain > tryptophan levels and in serotonin levels. We then decided to see > whether the secretion of the animal’s own insulin similarly affected > serotonin production. We gave the rats a carbohydrate-containing meal > that we knew would elicit insulin secretion. As we had hypothesized, > the blood tryptophan level and the concentrations of tryptophan and of > serotonin in the brain increased after the meal. Surprisingly, > however, when we added a large amount of protein to the meal, brain > tryptophan, and serotonin levels fell. Since protein contains > tryptophan, why should it depress brain tryptophan levels? The answer > lies in the mechanism that provides blood tryptophan to the brain > cells. This same mechanism also provides the brain cells with other > amino acids found in protein, such as tyrosine and leucine. The > consumption of protein increases the blood concentration of the other > amino acids much more, proportionately, than it does that of > tryptophan. The more protein is in a meal, the lower is the ratio of > the resulting blood-tryptophan concentration to the concentration of > competing for amino acids, and the more slowly is tryptophan provided > to the brain. Thus the more protein in a meal, the less serotonin > subsequently produced and released. Which of the following titles best summarizes the contents of the passage?

  1.  Neurotransmitters: Their Crucial Function in Cellular Communication
  2.  Diet and Survival: An Old Relationship Reexamined
  3.  The Blood Supply and the Brain: A Reciprocal Dependence
  4.  Amino Acids and Neurotransmitters: The Connection between Serotonin Levels and Tyrosine
  5.  The Effects of Food Intake on the Production and Release of Serotonin: Some Recent Findings

Solution : The Effects of Food Intake on the Production and Release of Serotonin: Some Recent Findings
Q97. > It was once believed that the brain was independent of metabolic > processes occurring elsewhere in the body. In recent studies, however, > we have discovered that the production and release in brain neurons of > the neurotransmitter serotonin (neurotransmitters are compounds that > neurons use to transmit signals to other cells) depend directly on the > food that the body processes. Our first studies sought to determine > whether the increase in serotonin observed in rats given a large > injection of the amino acid tryptophan might also occur after rats ate > meals that change tryptophan levels in the blood. We found that > immediately after the rats began to eat, parallel elevations occurred > in blood tryptophan, brain tryptophan, and brain serotonin levels. > These findings suggested that the production and release of serotonin > in brain neurons were normally coupled with blood-tryptophan > increases. In later studies, we found that injecting insulin into a > rat’s bloodstream also caused parallel elevations in blood and brain > tryptophan levels and in serotonin levels. We then decided to see > whether the secretion of the animal’s own insulin similarly affected > serotonin production. We gave the rats a carbohydrate-containing meal > that we knew would elicit insulin secretion. As we had hypothesized, > the blood tryptophan level and the concentrations of tryptophan and of > serotonin in the brain increased after the meal. Surprisingly, > however, when we added a large amount of protein to the meal, brain > tryptophan, and serotonin levels fell. Since protein contains > tryptophan, why should it depress brain tryptophan levels? The answer > lies in the mechanism that provides blood tryptophan to the brain > cells. This same mechanism also provides the brain cells with other > amino acids found in protein, such as tyrosine and leucine. The > consumption of protein increases the blood concentration of the other > amino acids much more, proportionately, than it does that of > tryptophan. The more protein is in a meal, the lower is the ratio of > the resulting blood-tryptophan concentration to the concentration of > competing for amino acids, and the more slowly is tryptophan provided > to the brain. Thus the more protein in a meal, the less serotonin > subsequently produced and released. According to the passage, the speed with which tryptophan is provided to the brain cells of a rat varies with the

  1.  the amount of protein presents in a meal
  2.  the concentration of serotonin in the brain before a meal
  3.  the concentration of leucine in the blood rather than with the concentration of tyrosine in the blood after a meal
  4.  the concentration of tryptophan in the brain before a meal
  5.  number of serotonin-containing neurons

Solution : the amount of protein presents in a meal

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Q98. > There is nothing undesirable in science or technology. But the > question of science and ethics is complex. A few dominant groups may > take decisions affecting whole populations. Therefore, we have to > learn as quickly as possible how to manage emerging technology in a > true public- interest perspective. The best way to do this is to > encourage participatory decision making so that science and technology > policies are a natural consequence of wider democratic processes. As > most countries today are moving towards democratic forms of society, > decisions are now increasingly being taken not by experts alone, but > by the public at large. We have seen this with nuclear power stations, > hydroelectric dams, toxic-waste disposal etc. Technology assessment > and forecasting can be usefully based on the views of several > organisations including non-scientific people. Such a forecasting > system should come out with scenarios on the basis of which decisions > can be taken at the national and the global levels. > > The science-communication capability of a society, at the grass-roots > level, is of critical importance. However, we have very little > expertise in this direction. The scientific community may not be well > equipped to understand the social implications of its research. So, it > should work closely with social scientists, public interest groups, > the bureaucracy and the political system. Scientists have to inform > the end users about the developments in science and technology and > their consequences in a language which they can understand. Earlier, > we used to talk about superstitions and inculcating scientific temper > among people. Now, a new cadre of science communicators with an > entirely new orientation is needed. Also, each new science and > technology project must earmark allocations for educating the public. > Even in the case of social development problems, such as health, > malnutrition, and sanitation, the problem is essentially of delivery. > It is largely a question of involving people in the delivery system. > > Globalisation has created both concerns and opportunities for > scientific research. The cost of research is going up because it is > increasingly instrument-oriented and instruments are expensive. > Moreover, research is seen as a business investment and business looks > for heavy and quick returns. There is a tendency to closely guard > intellectual knowledge to become competitive in the market. As a > consequence, many people with good ideas are kept away from practising > science. This is a major concern for developing countries. These > countries possess the maximum number of talented and original minds, > yet the number of scientific people for research from these countries > is dwindling. Our science and technology delivery system is weak. When > a technology is developed, its efficacy depends upon the delivery > mechanism adopted, how we take results of the laboratory to the end > users. Our scientists and technologists in the West contribute greatly > to the world’s economy but the same people cannot do it here because > of the weak delivery system. The issues of technology transfer, > commercialisation and adoption need to be addressed seriously. We have > to adjust our research and development priorities and technology > development paths in view of the competitive market conditions. > Globalisation has increased the mobility of trained people. > > But it has also resulted in huge financial compensations and human > resource costs. Now, a person trained in infotech for a mere three > months may be paid far more than the highest paid scientist in the > country. This is not because of the value of the expertise, but is an > insurance in lieu of increased mobility. For us, the rapidly expanding > global market for trained human resources is a big opportunity. Out of > 20 million students in the country, even if we manage to train one > million in emerging technologies, we can soon emerge as a world leader > in this field. Which of the following comprises the risk involved in S & T?

  1.  Delivery system
  2.  Inability to reach out to public
  3.  Lack of globalisation
  4.  Rearch and development system
  5.  Brain drain

Solution : Inability to reach out to public
Q99. > It was once believed that the brain was independent of metabolic > processes occurring elsewhere in the body. In recent studies, however, > we have discovered that the production and release in brain neurons of > the neurotransmitter serotonin (neurotransmitters are compounds that > neurons use to transmit signals to other cells) depend directly on the > food that the body processes. Our first studies sought to determine > whether the increase in serotonin observed in rats given a large > injection of the amino acid tryptophan might also occur after rats ate > meals that change tryptophan levels in the blood. We found that > immediately after the rats began to eat, parallel elevations occurred > in blood tryptophan, brain tryptophan, and brain serotonin levels. > These findings suggested that the production and release of serotonin > in brain neurons were normally coupled with blood-tryptophan > increases. In later studies, we found that injecting insulin into a > rat’s bloodstream also caused parallel elevations in blood and brain > tryptophan levels and in serotonin levels. We then decided to see > whether the secretion of the animal’s own insulin similarly affected > serotonin production. We gave the rats a carbohydrate-containing meal > that we knew would elicit insulin secretion. As we had hypothesized, > the blood tryptophan level and the concentrations of tryptophan and of > serotonin in the brain increased after the meal. Surprisingly, > however, when we added a large amount of protein to the meal, brain > tryptophan, and serotonin levels fell. Since protein contains > tryptophan, why should it depress brain tryptophan levels? The answer > lies in the mechanism that provides blood tryptophan to the brain > cells. This same mechanism also provides the brain cells with other > amino acids found in protein, such as tyrosine and leucine. The > consumption of protein increases the blood concentration of the other > amino acids much more, proportionately, than it does that of > tryptophan. The more protein is in a meal, the lower is the ratio of > the resulting blood-tryptophan concentration to the concentration of > competing for amino acids, and the more slowly is tryptophan provided > to the brain. Thus the more protein in a meal, the less serotonin > subsequently produced and released. According to the passage, when the authors began their first studies, they were aware that

  1.  they would eventually need to design experiments that involved feeding rats high concentrations of protein
  2.  tryptophan levels in the blood were difficult to monitor with accuracy
  3.  serotonin levels increased after rats were fed meals rich in tryptophan
  4.  there were many neurotransmitters whose production was dependent on metabolic processes elsewhere in the body
  5.  serotonin levels increased after rats were injected with a large amount of tryptophan

Solution : serotonin levels increased after rats were injected with a large amount of tryptophan

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Q100. > There is nothing undesirable in science or technology. But the > question of science and ethics is complex. A few dominant groups may > take decisions affecting whole populations. Therefore, we have to > learn as quickly as possible how to manage emerging technology in a > true public- interest perspective. The best way to do this is to > encourage participatory decision making so that science and technology > policies are a natural consequence of wider democratic processes. As > most countries today are moving towards democratic forms of society, > decisions are now increasingly being taken not by experts alone, but > by the public at large. We have seen this with nuclear power stations, > hydroelectric dams, toxic-waste disposal etc. Technology assessment > and forecasting can be usefully based on the views of several > organisations including non-scientific people. Such a forecasting > system should come out with scenarios on the basis of which decisions > can be taken at the national and the global levels. > > The science-communication capability of a society, at the grass-roots > level, is of critical importance. However, we have very little > expertise in this direction. The scientific community may not be well > equipped to understand the social implications of its research. So, it > should work closely with social scientists, public interest groups, > the bureaucracy and the political system. Scientists have to inform > the end users about the developments in science and technology and > their consequences in a language which they can understand. Earlier, > we used to talk about superstitions and inculcating scientific temper > among people. Now, a new cadre of science communicators with an > entirely new orientation is needed. Also, each new science and > technology project must earmark allocations for educating the public. > Even in the case of social development problems, such as health, > malnutrition, and sanitation, the problem is essentially of delivery. > It is largely a question of involving people in the delivery system. > > Globalisation has created both concerns and opportunities for > scientific research. The cost of research is going up because it is > increasingly instrument-oriented and instruments are expensive. > Moreover, research is seen as a business investment and business looks > for heavy and quick returns. There is a tendency to closely guard > intellectual knowledge to become competitive in the market. As a > consequence, many people with good ideas are kept away from practising > science. This is a major concern for developing countries. These > countries possess the maximum number of talented and original minds, > yet the number of scientific people for research from these countries > is dwindling. Our science and technology delivery system is weak. When > a technology is developed, its efficacy depends upon the delivery > mechanism adopted, how we take results of the laboratory to the end > users. Our scientists and technologists in the West contribute greatly > to the world’s economy but the same people cannot do it here because > of the weak delivery system. The issues of technology transfer, > commercialisation and adoption need to be addressed seriously. We have > to adjust our research and development priorities and technology > development paths in view of the competitive market conditions. > Globalisation has increased the mobility of trained people. > > But it has also resulted in huge financial compensations and human > resource costs. Now, a person trained in infotech for a mere three > months may be paid far more than the highest paid scientist in the > country. This is not because of the value of the expertise, but is an > insurance in lieu of increased mobility. For us, the rapidly expanding > global market for trained human resources is a big opportunity. Out of > 20 million students in the country, even if we manage to train one > million in emerging technologies, we can soon emerge as a world leader > in this field. Why has our research and development system come up with few commercially successful innovations?

  1.  Weak science and technology system
  2.  Exodus of scientists to the west
  3.  The laboratory remains the abode of the results.
  4.  Lack of mobility of trained personnel
  5.  None of these

Solution : The laboratory remains the abode of the results.
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Solution :

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