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Reading Comprehension

Reading Comprehension: English Reading Comprehension Exercises with Answers, Sample Passages for Reading Comprehension Test for GRE, CAT, IELTS preparation

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English Reading Comprehension Test Questions and Answers. Improve your ability to read and comprehend English Passages

Q101. > There is nothing undesirable in science or technology. But the > question of science and ethics is complex. A few dominant groups may > take decisions affecting whole populations. Therefore, we have to > learn as quickly as possible how to manage emerging technology in a > true public- interest perspective. The best way to do this is to > encourage participatory decision making so that science and technology > policies are a natural consequence of wider democratic processes. As > most countries today are moving towards democratic forms of society, > decisions are now increasingly being taken not by experts alone, but > by the public at large. We have seen this with nuclear power stations, > hydroelectric dams, toxic-waste disposal etc. Technology assessment > and forecasting can be usefully based on the views of several > organisations including non-scientific people. Such a forecasting > system should come out with scenarios on the basis of which decisions > can be taken at the national and the global levels. > > The science-communication capability of a society, at the grass-roots > level, is of critical importance. However, we have very little > expertise in this direction. The scientific community may not be well > equipped to understand the social implications of its research. So, it > should work closely with social scientists, public interest groups, > the bureaucracy and the political system. Scientists have to inform > the end users about the developments in science and technology and > their consequences in a language which they can understand. Earlier, > we used to talk about superstitions and inculcating scientific temper > among people. Now, a new cadre of science communicators with an > entirely new orientation is needed. Also, each new science and > technology project must earmark allocations for educating the public. > Even in the case of social development problems, such as health, > malnutrition, and sanitation, the problem is essentially of delivery. > It is largely a question of involving people in the delivery system. > > Globalisation has created both concerns and opportunities for > scientific research. The cost of research is going up because it is > increasingly instrument-oriented and instruments are expensive. > Moreover, research is seen as a business investment and business looks > for heavy and quick returns. There is a tendency to closely guard > intellectual knowledge to become competitive in the market. As a > consequence, many people with good ideas are kept away from practising > science. This is a major concern for developing countries. These > countries possess the maximum number of talented and original minds, > yet the number of scientific people for research from these countries > is dwindling. Our science and technology delivery system is weak. When > a technology is developed, its efficacy depends upon the delivery > mechanism adopted, how we take results of the laboratory to the end > users. Our scientists and technologists in the West contribute greatly > to the world’s economy but the same people cannot do it here because > of the weak delivery system. The issues of technology transfer, > commercialisation and adoption need to be addressed seriously. We have > to adjust our research and development priorities and technology > development paths in view of the competitive market conditions. > Globalisation has increased the mobility of trained people. > > But it has also resulted in huge financial compensations and human > resource costs. Now, a person trained in infotech for a mere three > months may be paid far more than the highest paid scientist in the > country. This is not because of the value of the expertise, but is an > insurance in lieu of increased mobility. For us, the rapidly expanding > global market for trained human resources is a big opportunity. Out of > 20 million students in the country, even if we manage to train one > million in emerging technologies, we can soon emerge as a world leader > in this field. What changes are required in research and development management in the present globalised environment?

  1.  Research and development must be cost-friendly.
  2.  Open-door and liberal policies
  3.  Science has to become less indiscreet.
  4.  Our scientists in the West must be encouraged.
  5.  None of these

Solution : None of these
Q102. > It was once believed that the brain was independent of metabolic > processes occurring elsewhere in the body. In recent studies, however, > we have discovered that the production and release in brain neurons of > the neurotransmitter serotonin (neurotransmitters are compounds that > neurons use to transmit signals to other cells) depend directly on the > food that the body processes. Our first studies sought to determine > whether the increase in serotonin observed in rats given a large > injection of the amino acid tryptophan might also occur after rats ate > meals that change tryptophan levels in the blood. We found that > immediately after the rats began to eat, parallel elevations occurred > in blood tryptophan, brain tryptophan, and brain serotonin levels. > These findings suggested that the production and release of serotonin > in brain neurons were normally coupled with blood-tryptophan > increases. In later studies, we found that injecting insulin into a > rat’s bloodstream also caused parallel elevations in blood and brain > tryptophan levels and in serotonin levels. We then decided to see > whether the secretion of the animal’s own insulin similarly affected > serotonin production. We gave the rats a carbohydrate-containing meal > that we knew would elicit insulin secretion. As we had hypothesized, > the blood tryptophan level and the concentrations of tryptophan and of > serotonin in the brain increased after the meal. Surprisingly, > however, when we added a large amount of protein to the meal, brain > tryptophan, and serotonin levels fell. Since protein contains > tryptophan, why should it depress brain tryptophan levels? The answer > lies in the mechanism that provides blood tryptophan to the brain > cells. This same mechanism also provides the brain cells with other > amino acids found in protein, such as tyrosine and leucine. The > consumption of protein increases the blood concentration of the other > amino acids much more, proportionately, than it does that of > tryptophan. The more protein is in a meal, the lower is the ratio of > the resulting blood-tryptophan concentration to the concentration of > competing for amino acids, and the more slowly is tryptophan provided > to the brain. Thus the more protein in a meal, the less serotonin > subsequently produced and released. According to the passage, one reason that the authors gave rats carbohydrates was to

  1.  depress the rats’ tryptophan levels
  2.  prevent the rats from contracting diseases
  3.  cause the rats to produce insulin
  4.  demonstrate that insulin is the most important substance secreted by the body
  5.  compare the effect of carbohydrates with the effect of proteins

Solution : cause the rats to produce insulin

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Q103. > There is nothing undesirable in science or technology. But the > question of science and ethics is complex. A few dominant groups may > take decisions affecting whole populations. Therefore, we have to > learn as quickly as possible how to manage emerging technology in a > true public- interest perspective. The best way to do this is to > encourage participatory decision making so that science and technology > policies are a natural consequence of wider democratic processes. As > most countries today are moving towards democratic forms of society, > decisions are now increasingly being taken not by experts alone, but > by the public at large. We have seen this with nuclear power stations, > hydroelectric dams, toxic-waste disposal etc. Technology assessment > and forecasting can be usefully based on the views of several > organisations including non-scientific people. Such a forecasting > system should come out with scenarios on the basis of which decisions > can be taken at the national and the global levels. > > The science-communication capability of a society, at the grass-roots > level, is of critical importance. However, we have very little > expertise in this direction. The scientific community may not be well > equipped to understand the social implications of its research. So, it > should work closely with social scientists, public interest groups, > the bureaucracy and the political system. Scientists have to inform > the end users about the developments in science and technology and > their consequences in a language which they can understand. Earlier, > we used to talk about superstitions and inculcating scientific temper > among people. Now, a new cadre of science communicators with an > entirely new orientation is needed. Also, each new science and > technology project must earmark allocations for educating the public. > Even in the case of social development problems, such as health, > malnutrition, and sanitation, the problem is essentially of delivery. > It is largely a question of involving people in the delivery system. > > Globalisation has created both concerns and opportunities for > scientific research. The cost of research is going up because it is > increasingly instrument-oriented and instruments are expensive. > Moreover, research is seen as a business investment and business looks > for heavy and quick returns. There is a tendency to closely guard > intellectual knowledge to become competitive in the market. As a > consequence, many people with good ideas are kept away from practising > science. This is a major concern for developing countries. These > countries possess the maximum number of talented and original minds, > yet the number of scientific people for research from these countries > is dwindling. Our science and technology delivery system is weak. When > a technology is developed, its efficacy depends upon the delivery > mechanism adopted, how we take results of the laboratory to the end > users. Our scientists and technologists in the West contribute greatly > to the world’s economy but the same people cannot do it here because > of the weak delivery system. The issues of technology transfer, > commercialisation and adoption need to be addressed seriously. We have > to adjust our research and development priorities and technology > development paths in view of the competitive market conditions. > Globalisation has increased the mobility of trained people. > > But it has also resulted in huge financial compensations and human > resource costs. Now, a person trained in infotech for a mere three > months may be paid far more than the highest paid scientist in the > country. This is not because of the value of the expertise, but is an > insurance in lieu of increased mobility. For us, the rapidly expanding > global market for trained human resources is a big opportunity. Out of > 20 million students in the country, even if we manage to train one > million in emerging technologies, we can soon emerge as a world leader > in this field. What are the new opportunities created by globalisation?

  1.  Discrepancies in jobs are decreasing.
  2.  One-million trained human resource
  3.  High human-resource cost
  4.  Availability of trained personnel
  5.  None of these

Solution : Availability of trained personnel
Q104. > It was once believed that the brain was independent of metabolic > processes occurring elsewhere in the body. In recent studies, however, > we have discovered that the production and release in brain neurons of > the neurotransmitter serotonin (neurotransmitters are compounds that > neurons use to transmit signals to other cells) depend directly on the > food that the body processes. Our first studies sought to determine > whether the increase in serotonin observed in rats given a large > injection of the amino acid tryptophan might also occur after rats ate > meals that change tryptophan levels in the blood. We found that > immediately after the rats began to eat, parallel elevations occurred > in blood tryptophan, brain tryptophan, and brain serotonin levels. > These findings suggested that the production and release of serotonin > in brain neurons were normally coupled with blood-tryptophan > increases. In later studies, we found that injecting insulin into a > rat’s bloodstream also caused parallel elevations in blood and brain > tryptophan levels and in serotonin levels. We then decided to see > whether the secretion of the animal’s own insulin similarly affected > serotonin production. We gave the rats a carbohydrate-containing meal > that we knew would elicit insulin secretion. As we had hypothesized, > the blood tryptophan level and the concentrations of tryptophan and of > serotonin in the brain increased after the meal. Surprisingly, > however, when we added a large amount of protein to the meal, brain > tryptophan, and serotonin levels fell. Since protein contains > tryptophan, why should it depress brain tryptophan levels? The answer > lies in the mechanism that provides blood tryptophan to the brain > cells. This same mechanism also provides the brain cells with other > amino acids found in protein, such as tyrosine and leucine. The > consumption of protein increases the blood concentration of the other > amino acids much more, proportionately, than it does that of > tryptophan. The more protein is in a meal, the lower is the ratio of > the resulting blood-tryptophan concentration to the concentration of > competing for amino acids, and the more slowly is tryptophan provided > to the brain. Thus the more protein in a meal, the less serotonin > subsequently produced and released. According to the passage, the more protein a rat consumes, the lower will be the

  1.  the ratio of the rat’s blood-tryptophan concentration to the amount of serotonin produced and released in the rat’s brain
  2.  the ratio of the rat’s blood-tryptophan concentration to the concentration in its blood of the other amino acids contained in the protein
  3.  the ratio of the rat’s blood-tyrosine concentration to its blood-leucine concentration
  4.  number of neurotransmitters of any kind that the rat will produce and release
  5.  number of amino acids the rat’s blood will contain

Solution : the ratio of the rat’s blood-tryptophan concentration to the concentration in its blood of the other amino acids contained in the protein

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Q105. > It was once believed that the brain was independent of metabolic > processes occurring elsewhere in the body. In recent studies, however, > we have discovered that the production and release in brain neurons of > the neurotransmitter serotonin (neurotransmitters are compounds that > neurons use to transmit signals to other cells) depend directly on the > food that the body processes. Our first studies sought to determine > whether the increase in serotonin observed in rats given a large > injection of the amino acid tryptophan might also occur after rats ate > meals that change tryptophan levels in the blood. We found that > immediately after the rats began to eat, parallel elevations occurred > in blood tryptophan, brain tryptophan, and brain serotonin levels. > These findings suggested that the production and release of serotonin > in brain neurons were normally coupled with blood-tryptophan > increases. In later studies, we found that injecting insulin into a > rat’s bloodstream also caused parallel elevations in blood and brain > tryptophan levels and in serotonin levels. We then decided to see > whether the secretion of the animal’s own insulin similarly affected > serotonin production. We gave the rats a carbohydrate-containing meal > that we knew would elicit insulin secretion. As we had hypothesized, > the blood tryptophan level and the concentrations of tryptophan and of > serotonin in the brain increased after the meal. Surprisingly, > however, when we added a large amount of protein to the meal, brain > tryptophan, and serotonin levels fell. Since protein contains > tryptophan, why should it depress brain tryptophan levels? The answer > lies in the mechanism that provides blood tryptophan to the brain > cells. This same mechanism also provides the brain cells with other > amino acids found in protein, such as tyrosine and leucine. The > consumption of protein increases the blood concentration of the other > amino acids much more, proportionately, than it does that of > tryptophan. The more protein is in a meal, the lower is the ratio of > the resulting blood-tryptophan concentration to the concentration of > competing for amino acids, and the more slowly is tryptophan provided > to the brain. Thus the more protein in a meal, the less serotonin > subsequently produced and released. The authors’ discussion of the “mechanism that provides blood tryptophan to the brain cells” is meant to

  1.  stimulate further research studies
  2.  summarize an area of scientific investigation
  3.  help explain why a particular research finding was obtained
  4.  provide supporting evidence for a controversial scientific theory
  5.  refute the conclusions of a previously mentioned research study

Solution : help explain why a particular research finding was obtained
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  1.  

Solution :

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