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Reading Comprehension: English Reading Comprehension Exercises with Answers, Sample Passages for Reading Comprehension Test for GRE, CAT, IELTS preparation

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English Reading Comprehension Test Questions and Answers. Improve your ability to read and comprehend English Passages

Q141. > Environmental protection and management is deservedly attracting a lot > of attention these days. This is a desirable development in the face > of the alarming rate of natural resource degradation which greatly > hampers their optimal utilization. When waste waters emanating from > municipal sewage, industrial effluent, agricultural and land runoffs, > find their way either to ground water reservoirs or other surface > water sources, the quality of water deteriorates, rendering it unfit > for use. The natural balance is disturbed when concentrated discharges > of waste water is not controlled. This because the cleansing forces of > nature cannot do their job in proportion to the production of filthy > matter. According to the National Environment Engineering and Research > Institute (NEERI), a staggering 70 percent of water available in the > country is polluted. According to the Planning Commission, “From the > Dal lake in the North to the Periyar and chaliyar rivers in the South, > from Damodar and Hoogly in the East to the Thane creek in the West, > the picture of water pollution is uniformly gloomy. Even our large > perennial rivers, like the Ganga, are today heavily polluted.” > > According to one study, all the 14 major rivers of India are highly > polluted. Besides the Ganga, these rivers include the Yamuna, Narmada, > Godavari, Krishna and Cauvery. These rivers carry 85 percent of the > surface runoff and their drainage basins cover 73 percent of the > country. The pollution of the much revered Ganga is due in particular > to municipal sewage that accounts for 3/4th of its pollution load. > Despite India having legislation on water pollution [The water > (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974] and various water > pollution control boards, rivers have today become synonymous with > drains and sewers. Untreated community wastes discharged into water > courses from human settlements account for four times as much waste > water as industrial effluent. Out of India’s 3,119 towns and cities, > only 217 have partial (209) or full (8) sewerage treatment facilities > and cover less than of third of the urban population, Statistics from > a report of the Central Board for Prevention and Control of Water > Pollution reveal that 1,700 of 2,700 water using industries in India, > are polluting the water around their factories. Only 160 industries > have waste water treatment plants. One estimate suggests that the > volume of waste water of industrial origin will be comparable to that > of domestic sewage in India by 2000 A.D. Discharges from agricultural > fields, which carry fertilizing ingredients of nitrogen, phosphorus > and pesticides are expected to be three times as much as domestic > sewage. By that date, thermal pollution generated by discharges from > thermal power plants will be the largest in volume. Toxic effluents > deplete the level of oxygen in the rivers, endanger all aquatic life > and render water absolutely unfit for human consumption, apart from > affecting industrial production. Sometimes, these effects have been > disastrous. A recent study reveals that the water of the Ganga, > Yamuna, Kali and Hindon rivers have considerable concentration of > heavy metals due to inflow of industrial wastes, which pose a serious > health hazard to the millions living on their bands. Similarly, the > Cauvery and Kapila rivers in Karnataka have been found to contain > metal pollution which hreatens the health of people in riverine towns. > The Periyar, the largest river of Kerala, receivers extremely toxic > effluent that result in high incidence of skin problems and fish > kills. The Godavari of Andhra Pradesh and the Damodar and Hoogly in > West Bengal receive untreated industrial toxic wastes. A high level of > pollution has been found in the Yamuna, while the Chambal of Rajasthan > is considered the most polluted river in Rajasthan. Even in > industrially backward Orissa, the Rushikula river is extremely > polluted. The fate of the Krishna in Andhra Pradesh, the Tungabhadra > in Karnataka, the Chaliyar in Kerala, the Gomati in U.P., the Narmada > in M.P. and the Sone and the Subarnarekha rivers in Bihar is no > different. According to the W.H.O., eighty percent of diseases > prevalent in India are water-borne; many of them assume epidemic > proportions. The prevalence of these diseases heighten under > conditions of drought. It is also estimated that India loses as many > as 73 million man days every year due to water borne diseases, costing > Rs. 600 crore by way of treatment expenditure and production losses. > Management of water resources with respect to their quality also > assumes greater importance especially when the country can no more > afford to waste water. The recent Clean-the-Ganga Project, with an > action plan estimated to cost the exchequer Rs. 250 crore (which has > been accorded top priority) is a trend setter in achieving this goal. > The action plan evoked such great interest that offers of assistance > have been received from France, U.K., U.S. and the Netherlands, as > also from the World Bank. This is indeed laudable. Poland too has now > joined this list. The very fact that these countries have volunteered > themselves to contribute their mite is a healthy reflection of global > concern over growing environmental degradation and the readiness of > the international community to participate in what is a truly > formidable task. It may be recalled that the task of cleansing the > Ganga along the Rishikesh-Hardwar stretch under the first phase of > the Ganga Action Plan, has been completed and the results are reported > to be encouraging. The crisis of drinking water is deepening because > water resources are drying up and the lowering of ground water through > over pumping, this is compounded by the pollution of water resources. > All these factors increase the magnitude of the problem. An assessment > of the progress achieved by the end of March 1985, on completion of > the first phase of the International Drinking Water Supply and > Sanitation Dacade (1981–91), reveals that drinking water has been made > available to 73 percent of the urban population and 56 percent to the > rural population only. This means that nearly half the country’s rural > population has to get drinking water facilities. This needs to be > urgently geared up especially when considered against the Government’s > professed objective of providing safe drinking water and sanitation to > all by the end of the International Drinking Water Supply and > Sanitation Decade, i.e., March 1991. The foremost action in this would > be to clean up our water resources. As per surveys conducted by the > NEERI, per capita drinking water losses in different cities in the > country range between 11,000 to 31,000 liters annually. This indicates > a waste level of 20-35 percent of the total flow of water in the > distribution system, primarily due to leaks in mains and household > service pipes. Preventive maintenance programme would substantially > reduce losses/wastages and would certainly go a long way in solving > the problem. According to the Union Ministry of Works and Housing, out > of 2.31 lakh problem villages identified in 1980, 1.92 lakh (83 > percent) villages have been provided with at least one source of > drinking water as of March 1986. The balance (38,748) villages are > expected to be covered during the seventh plan. A time-bound national > policy on drinking water is being formulated by Government, wherein > the task is proposed to be completed by the end of the seventh plan. > An outlay of Rs. 6,522.47 crores has been allotted for the water > supply and sanitation sector in the seventh plan period, against an > outlay of Rs. 3,922.02 crores in the sixth plan. Of this, outlay for > rural water supply sector is Rs. 3,454.47 crores. It is expected that > this outlay would help to cover about 86.4 percent of the urban and > 82.2 percent of the rural population with safe drinking water facilities by March 1991.Hygienic sanitation facilities would be > provided to 44.7 percent and 1.8 percent of the urban and rural > population respectively within, the same period. The crisis of drinking water is caused chiefly by:

  1.  the greenhouse effect.
  2.  water pollution caused by industrial development.
  3.  drying up of water sources and over-pumping.
  4.  increasing urbanization.
  5.  None of the above.

Solution : drying up of water sources and over-pumping.
Q142. > Environmental protection and management is deservedly attracting a lot > of attention these days. This is a desirable development in the face > of the alarming rate of natural resource degradation which greatly > hampers their optimal utilization. When waste waters emanating from > municipal sewage, industrial effluent, agricultural and land runoffs, > find their way either to ground water reservoirs or other surface > water sources, the quality of water deteriorates, rendering it unfit > for use. The natural balance is disturbed when concentrated discharges > of waste water is not controlled. This because the cleansing forces of > nature cannot do their job in proportion to the production of filthy > matter. According to the National Environment Engineering and Research > Institute (NEERI), a staggering 70 percent of water available in the > country is polluted. According to the Planning Commission, “From the > Dal lake in the North to the Periyar and chaliyar rivers in the South, > from Damodar and Hoogly in the East to the Thane creek in the West, > the picture of water pollution is uniformly gloomy. Even our large > perennial rivers, like the Ganga, are today heavily polluted.” > > According to one study, all the 14 major rivers of India are highly > polluted. Besides the Ganga, these rivers include the Yamuna, Narmada, > Godavari, Krishna and Cauvery. These rivers carry 85 percent of the > surface runoff and their drainage basins cover 73 percent of the > country. The pollution of the much revered Ganga is due in particular > to municipal sewage that accounts for 3/4th of its pollution load. > Despite India having legislation on water pollution [The water > (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974] and various water > pollution control boards, rivers have today become synonymous with > drains and sewers. Untreated community wastes discharged into water > courses from human settlements account for four times as much waste > water as industrial effluent. Out of India’s 3,119 towns and cities, > only 217 have partial (209) or full (8) sewerage treatment facilities > and cover less than of third of the urban population, Statistics from > a report of the Central Board for Prevention and Control of Water > Pollution reveal that 1,700 of 2,700 water using industries in India, > are polluting the water around their factories. Only 160 industries > have waste water treatment plants. One estimate suggests that the > volume of waste water of industrial origin will be comparable to that > of domestic sewage in India by 2000 A.D. Discharges from agricultural > fields, which carry fertilizing ingredients of nitrogen, phosphorus > and pesticides are expected to be three times as much as domestic > sewage. By that date, thermal pollution generated by discharges from > thermal power plants will be the largest in volume. Toxic effluents > deplete the level of oxygen in the rivers, endanger all aquatic life > and render water absolutely unfit for human consumption, apart from > affecting industrial production. Sometimes, these effects have been > disastrous. A recent study reveals that the water of the Ganga, > Yamuna, Kali and Hindon rivers have considerable concentration of > heavy metals due to inflow of industrial wastes, which pose a serious > health hazard to the millions living on their bands. Similarly, the > Cauvery and Kapila rivers in Karnataka have been found to contain > metal pollution which hreatens the health of people in riverine towns. > The Periyar, the largest river of Kerala, receivers extremely toxic > effluent that result in high incidence of skin problems and fish > kills. The Godavari of Andhra Pradesh and the Damodar and Hoogly in > West Bengal receive untreated industrial toxic wastes. A high level of > pollution has been found in the Yamuna, while the Chambal of Rajasthan > is considered the most polluted river in Rajasthan. Even in > industrially backward Orissa, the Rushikula river is extremely > polluted. The fate of the Krishna in Andhra Pradesh, the Tungabhadra > in Karnataka, the Chaliyar in Kerala, the Gomati in U.P., the Narmada > in M.P. and the Sone and the Subarnarekha rivers in Bihar is no > different. According to the W.H.O., eighty percent of diseases > prevalent in India are water-borne; many of them assume epidemic > proportions. The prevalence of these diseases heighten under > conditions of drought. It is also estimated that India loses as many > as 73 million man days every year due to water borne diseases, costing > Rs. 600 crore by way of treatment expenditure and production losses. > Management of water resources with respect to their quality also > assumes greater importance especially when the country can no more > afford to waste water. The recent Clean-the-Ganga Project, with an > action plan estimated to cost the exchequer Rs. 250 crore (which has > been accorded top priority) is a trend setter in achieving this goal. > The action plan evoked such great interest that offers of assistance > have been received from France, U.K., U.S. and the Netherlands, as > also from the World Bank. This is indeed laudable. Poland too has now > joined this list. The very fact that these countries have volunteered > themselves to contribute their mite is a healthy reflection of global > concern over growing environmental degradation and the readiness of > the international community to participate in what is a truly > formidable task. It may be recalled that the task of cleansing the > Ganga along the Rishikesh-Hardwar stretch under the first phase of > the Ganga Action Plan, has been completed and the results are reported > to be encouraging. The crisis of drinking water is deepening because > water resources are drying up and the lowering of ground water through > over pumping, this is compounded by the pollution of water resources. > All these factors increase the magnitude of the problem. An assessment > of the progress achieved by the end of March 1985, on completion of > the first phase of the International Drinking Water Supply and > Sanitation Dacade (1981–91), reveals that drinking water has been made > available to 73 percent of the urban population and 56 percent to the > rural population only. This means that nearly half the country’s rural > population has to get drinking water facilities. This needs to be > urgently geared up especially when considered against the Government’s > professed objective of providing safe drinking water and sanitation to > all by the end of the International Drinking Water Supply and > Sanitation Decade, i.e., March 1991. The foremost action in this would > be to clean up our water resources. As per surveys conducted by the > NEERI, per capita drinking water losses in different cities in the > country range between 11,000 to 31,000 liters annually. This indicates > a waste level of 20-35 percent of the total flow of water in the > distribution system, primarily due to leaks in mains and household > service pipes. Preventive maintenance programme would substantially > reduce losses/wastages and would certainly go a long way in solving > the problem. According to the Union Ministry of Works and Housing, out > of 2.31 lakh problem villages identified in 1980, 1.92 lakh (83 > percent) villages have been provided with at least one source of > drinking water as of March 1986. The balance (38,748) villages are > expected to be covered during the seventh plan. A time-bound national > policy on drinking water is being formulated by Government, wherein > the task is proposed to be completed by the end of the seventh plan. > An outlay of Rs. 6,522.47 crores has been allotted for the water > supply and sanitation sector in the seventh plan period, against an > outlay of Rs. 3,922.02 crores in the sixth plan. Of this, outlay for > rural water supply sector is Rs. 3,454.47 crores. It is expected that > this outlay would help to cover about 86.4 percent of the urban and > 82.2 percent of the rural population with safe drinking water facilities by March 1991.Hygienic sanitation facilities would be > provided to 44.7 percent and 1.8 percent of the urban and rural > population respectively within, the same period. The best remedy for water shortage lies in:

  1.  putting up more pumps in rural areas.
  2.  cleaning up polluted water.
  3.  reducing the waste level of 25-30 percent of the total flow of water.
  4.  constructing large-sized dams.
  5.  None of the above.

Solution : cleaning up polluted water.

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Q143. > Environmental protection and management is deservedly attracting a lot > of attention these days. This is a desirable development in the face > of the alarming rate of natural resource degradation which greatly > hampers their optimal utilization. When waste waters emanating from > municipal sewage, industrial effluent, agricultural and land runoffs, > find their way either to ground water reservoirs or other surface > water sources, the quality of water deteriorates, rendering it unfit > for use. The natural balance is disturbed when concentrated discharges > of waste water is not controlled. This because the cleansing forces of > nature cannot do their job in proportion to the production of filthy > matter. According to the National Environment Engineering and Research > Institute (NEERI), a staggering 70 percent of water available in the > country is polluted. According to the Planning Commission, “From the > Dal lake in the North to the Periyar and chaliyar rivers in the South, > from Damodar and Hoogly in the East to the Thane creek in the West, > the picture of water pollution is uniformly gloomy. Even our large > perennial rivers, like the Ganga, are today heavily polluted.” > > According to one study, all the 14 major rivers of India are highly > polluted. Besides the Ganga, these rivers include the Yamuna, Narmada, > Godavari, Krishna and Cauvery. These rivers carry 85 percent of the > surface runoff and their drainage basins cover 73 percent of the > country. The pollution of the much revered Ganga is due in particular > to municipal sewage that accounts for 3/4th of its pollution load. > Despite India having legislation on water pollution [The water > (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974] and various water > pollution control boards, rivers have today become synonymous with > drains and sewers. Untreated community wastes discharged into water > courses from human settlements account for four times as much waste > water as industrial effluent. Out of India’s 3,119 towns and cities, > only 217 have partial (209) or full (8) sewerage treatment facilities > and cover less than of third of the urban population, Statistics from > a report of the Central Board for Prevention and Control of Water > Pollution reveal that 1,700 of 2,700 water using industries in India, > are polluting the water around their factories. Only 160 industries > have waste water treatment plants. One estimate suggests that the > volume of waste water of industrial origin will be comparable to that > of domestic sewage in India by 2000 A.D. Discharges from agricultural > fields, which carry fertilizing ingredients of nitrogen, phosphorus > and pesticides are expected to be three times as much as domestic > sewage. By that date, thermal pollution generated by discharges from > thermal power plants will be the largest in volume. Toxic effluents > deplete the level of oxygen in the rivers, endanger all aquatic life > and render water absolutely unfit for human consumption, apart from > affecting industrial production. Sometimes, these effects have been > disastrous. A recent study reveals that the water of the Ganga, > Yamuna, Kali and Hindon rivers have considerable concentration of > heavy metals due to inflow of industrial wastes, which pose a serious > health hazard to the millions living on their bands. Similarly, the > Cauvery and Kapila rivers in Karnataka have been found to contain > metal pollution which hreatens the health of people in riverine towns. > The Periyar, the largest river of Kerala, receivers extremely toxic > effluent that result in high incidence of skin problems and fish > kills. The Godavari of Andhra Pradesh and the Damodar and Hoogly in > West Bengal receive untreated industrial toxic wastes. A high level of > pollution has been found in the Yamuna, while the Chambal of Rajasthan > is considered the most polluted river in Rajasthan. Even in > industrially backward Orissa, the Rushikula river is extremely > polluted. The fate of the Krishna in Andhra Pradesh, the Tungabhadra > in Karnataka, the Chaliyar in Kerala, the Gomati in U.P., the Narmada > in M.P. and the Sone and the Subarnarekha rivers in Bihar is no > different. According to the W.H.O., eighty percent of diseases > prevalent in India are water-borne; many of them assume epidemic > proportions. The prevalence of these diseases heighten under > conditions of drought. It is also estimated that India loses as many > as 73 million man days every year due to water borne diseases, costing > Rs. 600 crore by way of treatment expenditure and production losses. > Management of water resources with respect to their quality also > assumes greater importance especially when the country can no more > afford to waste water. The recent Clean-the-Ganga Project, with an > action plan estimated to cost the exchequer Rs. 250 crore (which has > been accorded top priority) is a trend setter in achieving this goal. > The action plan evoked such great interest that offers of assistance > have been received from France, U.K., U.S. and the Netherlands, as > also from the World Bank. This is indeed laudable. Poland too has now > joined this list. The very fact that these countries have volunteered > themselves to contribute their mite is a healthy reflection of global > concern over growing environmental degradation and the readiness of > the international community to participate in what is a truly > formidable task. It may be recalled that the task of cleansing the > Ganga along the Rishikesh-Hardwar stretch under the first phase of > the Ganga Action Plan, has been completed and the results are reported > to be encouraging. The crisis of drinking water is deepening because > water resources are drying up and the lowering of ground water through > over pumping, this is compounded by the pollution of water resources. > All these factors increase the magnitude of the problem. An assessment > of the progress achieved by the end of March 1985, on completion of > the first phase of the International Drinking Water Supply and > Sanitation Dacade (1981–91), reveals that drinking water has been made > available to 73 percent of the urban population and 56 percent to the > rural population only. This means that nearly half the country’s rural > population has to get drinking water facilities. This needs to be > urgently geared up especially when considered against the Government’s > professed objective of providing safe drinking water and sanitation to > all by the end of the International Drinking Water Supply and > Sanitation Decade, i.e., March 1991. The foremost action in this would > be to clean up our water resources. As per surveys conducted by the > NEERI, per capita drinking water losses in different cities in the > country range between 11,000 to 31,000 liters annually. This indicates > a waste level of 20-35 percent of the total flow of water in the > distribution system, primarily due to leaks in mains and household > service pipes. Preventive maintenance programme would substantially > reduce losses/wastages and would certainly go a long way in solving > the problem. According to the Union Ministry of Works and Housing, out > of 2.31 lakh problem villages identified in 1980, 1.92 lakh (83 > percent) villages have been provided with at least one source of > drinking water as of March 1986. The balance (38,748) villages are > expected to be covered during the seventh plan. A time-bound national > policy on drinking water is being formulated by Government, wherein > the task is proposed to be completed by the end of the seventh plan. > An outlay of Rs. 6,522.47 crores has been allotted for the water > supply and sanitation sector in the seventh plan period, against an > outlay of Rs. 3,922.02 crores in the sixth plan. Of this, outlay for > rural water supply sector is Rs. 3,454.47 crores. It is expected that > this outlay would help to cover about 86.4 percent of the urban and > 82.2 percent of the rural population with safe drinking water facilities by March 1991.Hygienic sanitation facilities would be > provided to 44.7 percent and 1.8 percent of the urban and rural > population respectively within, the same period. Out of the total outlay for water supply and sanitation in the seventh plan, rural water supply sector would receive.

  1.  about 53 percent.
  2.  over 80 percent.
  3.  between 65 and 80 percent.
  4.  equal to 44.7 percent.
  5.  None of the above.

Solution : about 53 percent.
Q144. > Marketing executives in television work with a relatively stable > advertising medium. In many ways, the television ads aired today are > similar to those aired two decades ago. Most television ads still > feature actors, still run 30 or 60 seconds, and still show a product. > However, the differing dynamics of the Internet pose unique challenges > to advertisers, forcing them to adapt their practices and techniques > on a regular basis. > > In the early days of Internet marketing, online advertisers employed > banner and pop-up ads to attract customers. These techniques reached > large audiences, generated many sales leads, and came at a low cost. > However, a small number of Internet users began to consider these > advertising techniques intrusive and annoying. Yet because marketing > strategies relying heavily on banners and pop-ups produced results, > companies invested growing amounts of money into purchasing these ad > types in hopes of capturing market share in the burgeoning online > economy. As consumers became more sophisticated, frustration with > these online advertising techniques grew. Independent programmers > began to develop tools that blocked banner and pop-up ads. The > popularity of these tools exploded when the search engine Google, at > the time an increasingly popular website fighting to solidify its > place on the Internet with giants Microsoft and Yahoo, offered free > software enabling users to block pop-up ads. The backlash against > banner ads grew as new web browsers provided users the ability to > block image-based ads such as banner ads. Although banner and pop-up > ads still exist, they are far less prominent than during the early > days of the Internet. > > A major development in online marketing came with the introduction of > pay-per-click ads. Unlike banner or pop-up ads, which originally > required companies to pay every time a website visitor saw an ad, > pay-per-click ads allowed companies to pay only when an interested > potential customer clicked on an ad. More importantly, however, these > ads circumvented the pop-up and banner blockers. As a result of these > advantages and the incredible growth in the use of search engines, > which provide excellent venues for pay-per-click advertising, > companies began turning to pay-per-click marketing in droves. However, > as with the banner and pop-up ads that preceded them, pay-per-click > ads came with their drawbacks. When companies began pouring billions > of dollars into this emerging medium, online advertising specialists > started to notice the presence of what would later be called click > fraud: representatives of a company with no interest in the product > advertised by a competitor click on the competitor's ads simply to > increase the marketing cost of the competitor. Click fraud grew so > rapidly that marketers sought to diversify their online positions away > from pay-per-click marketing through new mediums. > > Although pay-per-click advertising remains a common and effective > advertising tool, marketers adapted yet again to the changing dynamics > of the Internet by adopting new techniques such as pay-per-performance > advertising, search engine optimization, and affiliate marketing. As > the pace of the Internet's evolution increases, it seems all the more > likely that advertising successfully on the Internet will require a > strategy that shuns constancy and embraces change. The author implies what about the future of pay-per-performance advertising?

  1.  Although it improves on pay-per-click advertising, it is still vulnerable to click fraud
  2.  It will one day become extinct as Internet users discover drawbacks with it
  3.  Internet users will develop free software to block its effectiveness
  4.  t will eventually become less popular with advertisers as the Internet evolves and drawbacks emerge
  5.  It will not face drawbacks due to its differing approach to online marketing

Solution : t will eventually become less popular with advertisers as the Internet evolves and drawbacks emerge

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Q145. > Marketing executives in television work with a relatively stable > advertising medium. In many ways, the television ads aired today are > similar to those aired two decades ago. Most television ads still > feature actors, still run 30 or 60 seconds, and still show a product. > However, the differing dynamics of the Internet pose unique challenges > to advertisers, forcing them to adapt their practices and techniques > on a regular basis. > > In the early days of Internet marketing, online advertisers employed > banner and pop-up ads to attract customers. These techniques reached > large audiences, generated many sales leads, and came at a low cost. > However, a small number of Internet users began to consider these > advertising techniques intrusive and annoying. Yet because marketing > strategies relying heavily on banners and pop-ups produced results, > companies invested growing amounts of money into purchasing these ad > types in hopes of capturing market share in the burgeoning online > economy. As consumers became more sophisticated, frustration with > these online advertising techniques grew. Independent programmers > began to develop tools that blocked banner and pop-up ads. The > popularity of these tools exploded when the search engine Google, at > the time an increasingly popular website fighting to solidify its > place on the Internet with giants Microsoft and Yahoo, offered free > software enabling users to block pop-up ads. The backlash against > banner ads grew as new web browsers provided users the ability to > block image-based ads such as banner ads. Although banner and pop-up > ads still exist, they are far less prominent than during the early > days of the Internet. > > A major development in online marketing came with the introduction of > pay-per-click ads. Unlike banner or pop-up ads, which originally > required companies to pay every time a website visitor saw an ad, > pay-per-click ads allowed companies to pay only when an interested > potential customer clicked on an ad. More importantly, however, these > ads circumvented the pop-up and banner blockers. As a result of these > advantages and the incredible growth in the use of search engines, > which provide excellent venues for pay-per-click advertising, > companies began turning to pay-per-click marketing in droves. However, > as with the banner and pop-up ads that preceded them, pay-per-click > ads came with their drawbacks. When companies began pouring billions > of dollars into this emerging medium, online advertising specialists > started to notice the presence of what would later be called click > fraud: representatives of a company with no interest in the product > advertised by a competitor click on the competitor's ads simply to > increase the marketing cost of the competitor. Click fraud grew so > rapidly that marketers sought to diversify their online positions away > from pay-per-click marketing through new mediums. > > Although pay-per-click advertising remains a common and effective > advertising tool, marketers adapted yet again to the changing dynamics > of the Internet by adopting new techniques such as pay-per-performance > advertising, search engine optimization, and affiliate marketing. As > the pace of the Internet's evolution increases, it seems all the more > likely that advertising successfully on the Internet will require a > strategy that shuns constancy and embraces change. Which of the following most accurately states the main idea of the passage?

  1.  Although pay-per-click advertising remains a wide-spread and effective online advertising medium, its popularity is likely to diminish as the Internet evolves.
  2.  Internet advertising is not well received by Internet users, causing independent programmers to subvert advertisers.
  3.  Unlike the television, the Internet has experienced dramatic changes in short periods of time.
  4.  Unlike the television, the Internet has evolved rapidly, forcing online marketers to develop new advertising strategies and mediums.
  5.  The pace of the Internet’s evolution is increasing and will only increase in the future.

Solution : Unlike the television, the Internet has evolved rapidly, forcing online marketers to develop new advertising strategies and mediums.
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  1.  

Solution :

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