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Reading Comprehension

Reading Comprehension: English Reading Comprehension Exercises with Answers, Sample Passages for Reading Comprehension Test for GRE, CAT, IELTS preparation

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English Reading Comprehension Test Questions and Answers. Improve your ability to read and comprehend English Passages

Q11. > Corruption is a broad term covering a wide range of misuse of > entrusted funds and power for personal gain i.e. Theft, fraud, > nepotism, abuse of power etc. A corrupt act is often - but not > necessarily - illegal. In handling corruption you will often face a > Gray zones and dilemmas. In many countries, corruption is everywhere > and daily life is riddled with situations in the Gray zone between > legal and illegal. Many people accept petty corruption as a fact of > life. But the causes might differ, however, whether corruption results > from a need, a culture or simply from an opportunity too tempting not > to exploit, it influences the way we deal with it - or don’t deal with > it. Corruption can occur on different scales. There is corruption that > occurs as small favours between a small number of people (petty > corruption), corruption that affects the government on a large scale > (grand corruption), and corruption that is so prevalent that it is > part of the every day structure of society, including corruption as > one of the symptoms of organized crime (systemic corruption). > > The main reason for the spread of corruption is that the people in the > highest seat of power are corrupt unless the people at the top rung of > power are honest and free from corruption; there is absolutely no > possibility of eradicating corruption. If there is widespread > corruption in India , it is because the people at the top are really > corrupt .No subordinate will have to guts to be corrupt if the people > at the top of the administration are honest and take stern action > against the corrupt people .They can not be harsh to the corrupt > people , since it is through the corrupt subordinates that the people > at the top get their share of the bribes .If one can make a discrete > enquiry with the pavement traders, he can find out how much the police > and the corporation councillors collect from the pavement traders > .They say that the money so collected is shared by people from the top > to the bottom. If the head is corrupt, what will the limbs do? The > causes of corruption in India also include excessive regulations, > complicated taxes and licensing systems, numerous government > departments each with opaque bureaucracy and discretionary powers, > monopoly by government controlled institutions on certain goods and > services delivery, and the lack of transparent laws and processes. > There are significant variations in level of corruption as well as in > state government efforts to reduce corruption across India. A 2005 > study done by Transparency International in India found that more than > 62% of the people had firsthand experience of paying bribe or peddling > influence to get a job done in a public office.Taxes and bribes are > common between state borders; Transparency International estimates > that truckers pay annually 22,200 crores (US$ 4.5 billion) in bribes. > Government regulators and police share in bribe money, each to the > tune of 43% and 45% respectively. The en route stoppages including > those at checkpoints and entry-points take up to 11 hours in a day. > About 60% of these (forced) stoppages on road by concerned authorities > such as government regulators, police, forest, sales and excise, > octroi, weighing and measuring department are for extorting money. The > loss in productivity due to these stoppages is an important national > concern. The number of truck trips could increase by 40%, if forced > delays are avoided. According to a 2007 World Bank published report, > the travel time for a Delhi-Mumbai trip can be reduced by about 2 days > per trip if the corruption and associated regulatory stoppages to > extract bribes was eliminated. What is petty corruption ?

  1.  When corruption doesn't occur in many people.
  2.  Corruption found from top to bottom in every department.
  3.  When people of a particular department is corrupt.
  4.  Where head of the departments are corrupt.
  5.  None of these

Solution : When corruption doesn't occur in many people.
Q12. > Corruption is a broad term covering a wide range of misuse of > entrusted funds and power for personal gain i.e. Theft, fraud, > nepotism, abuse of power etc. A corrupt act is often - but not > necessarily - illegal. In handling corruption you will often face a > Gray zones and dilemmas. In many countries, corruption is everywhere > and daily life is riddled with situations in the Gray zone between > legal and illegal. Many people accept petty corruption as a fact of > life. But the causes might differ, however, whether corruption results > from a need, a culture or simply from an opportunity too tempting not > to exploit, it influences the way we deal with it - or don’t deal with > it. Corruption can occur on different scales. There is corruption that > occurs as small favours between a small number of people (petty > corruption), corruption that affects the government on a large scale > (grand corruption), and corruption that is so prevalent that it is > part of the every day structure of society, including corruption as > one of the symptoms of organized crime (systemic corruption). > > The main reason for the spread of corruption is that the people in the > highest seat of power are corrupt unless the people at the top rung of > power are honest and free from corruption; there is absolutely no > possibility of eradicating corruption. If there is widespread > corruption in India , it is because the people at the top are really > corrupt .No subordinate will have to guts to be corrupt if the people > at the top of the administration are honest and take stern action > against the corrupt people .They can not be harsh to the corrupt > people , since it is through the corrupt subordinates that the people > at the top get their share of the bribes .If one can make a discrete > enquiry with the pavement traders, he can find out how much the police > and the corporation councillors collect from the pavement traders > .They say that the money so collected is shared by people from the top > to the bottom. If the head is corrupt, what will the limbs do? The > causes of corruption in India also include excessive regulations, > complicated taxes and licensing systems, numerous government > departments each with opaque bureaucracy and discretionary powers, > monopoly by government controlled institutions on certain goods and > services delivery, and the lack of transparent laws and processes. > There are significant variations in level of corruption as well as in > state government efforts to reduce corruption across India. A 2005 > study done by Transparency International in India found that more than > 62% of the people had firsthand experience of paying bribe or peddling > influence to get a job done in a public office.Taxes and bribes are > common between state borders; Transparency International estimates > that truckers pay annually 22,200 crores (US$ 4.5 billion) in bribes. > Government regulators and police share in bribe money, each to the > tune of 43% and 45% respectively. The en route stoppages including > those at checkpoints and entry-points take up to 11 hours in a day. > About 60% of these (forced) stoppages on road by concerned authorities > such as government regulators, police, forest, sales and excise, > octroi, weighing and measuring department are for extorting money. The > loss in productivity due to these stoppages is an important national > concern. The number of truck trips could increase by 40%, if forced > delays are avoided. According to a 2007 World Bank published report, > the travel time for a Delhi-Mumbai trip can be reduced by about 2 days > per trip if the corruption and associated regulatory stoppages to > extract bribes was eliminated. Why the corruption is increasing so rapidly ?

  1.  Because all the employees are interested in it.
  2.  The people in the highest seat of power our involved in the corruption.
  3.  Government is unable to control over the corruption.
  4.  There is a lack of strict laws against it.
  5.  None of these

Solution : The people in the highest seat of power our involved in the corruption.

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Q13. > Corruption is a broad term covering a wide range of misuse of > entrusted funds and power for personal gain i.e. Theft, fraud, > nepotism, abuse of power etc. A corrupt act is often - but not > necessarily - illegal. In handling corruption you will often face a > Gray zones and dilemmas. In many countries, corruption is everywhere > and daily life is riddled with situations in the Gray zone between > legal and illegal. Many people accept petty corruption as a fact of > life. But the causes might differ, however, whether corruption results > from a need, a culture or simply from an opportunity too tempting not > to exploit, it influences the way we deal with it - or don’t deal with > it. Corruption can occur on different scales. There is corruption that > occurs as small favours between a small number of people (petty > corruption), corruption that affects the government on a large scale > (grand corruption), and corruption that is so prevalent that it is > part of the every day structure of society, including corruption as > one of the symptoms of organized crime (systemic corruption). > > The main reason for the spread of corruption is that the people in the > highest seat of power are corrupt unless the people at the top rung of > power are honest and free from corruption; there is absolutely no > possibility of eradicating corruption. If there is widespread > corruption in India , it is because the people at the top are really > corrupt .No subordinate will have to guts to be corrupt if the people > at the top of the administration are honest and take stern action > against the corrupt people .They can not be harsh to the corrupt > people , since it is through the corrupt subordinates that the people > at the top get their share of the bribes .If one can make a discrete > enquiry with the pavement traders, he can find out how much the police > and the corporation councillors collect from the pavement traders > .They say that the money so collected is shared by people from the top > to the bottom. If the head is corrupt, what will the limbs do? The > causes of corruption in India also include excessive regulations, > complicated taxes and licensing systems, numerous government > departments each with opaque bureaucracy and discretionary powers, > monopoly by government controlled institutions on certain goods and > services delivery, and the lack of transparent laws and processes. > There are significant variations in level of corruption as well as in > state government efforts to reduce corruption across India. A 2005 > study done by Transparency International in India found that more than > 62% of the people had firsthand experience of paying bribe or peddling > influence to get a job done in a public office.Taxes and bribes are > common between state borders; Transparency International estimates > that truckers pay annually 22,200 crores (US$ 4.5 billion) in bribes. > Government regulators and police share in bribe money, each to the > tune of 43% and 45% respectively. The en route stoppages including > those at checkpoints and entry-points take up to 11 hours in a day. > About 60% of these (forced) stoppages on road by concerned authorities > such as government regulators, police, forest, sales and excise, > octroi, weighing and measuring department are for extorting money. The > loss in productivity due to these stoppages is an important national > concern. The number of truck trips could increase by 40%, if forced > delays are avoided. According to a 2007 World Bank published report, > the travel time for a Delhi-Mumbai trip can be reduced by about 2 days > per trip if the corruption and associated regulatory stoppages to > extract bribes was eliminated. What do you understand by Gray zones as used in the passage ?

  1.  Double meaning.
  2.  A puzzled situation but can be solved.
  3.  Lack of knowledge.
  4.  A topic that is not clear or full of ambiguity.
  5.  None of these

Solution : A topic that is not clear or full of ambiguity.
Q14. > The recent elections to the Rajya Sabha to fill 57 vacant seats > became notorious for alleged poaching by political parties among the > ranks of their counterparts with charges of corruption blaring out > loud against one another. While such charges are not new, their extent > was magnified in this round since these elections were crucial for the > ruling Bharatiya Janata Party and the opposition Congress to decide > who holds the scales in the Upper House. The former has found many of > its pet legislative proposals stonewalled due to the lack of majority > support in the House, while the latter has turned it into an important > trench for its war of position against the ruling dispensation. While > the Rajya Sabha has generally played second fiddle to the Lok Sabha > during the periods of preponderance of a ruling regime in both the > Houses, it has become an important platform of resistance to the > majoritarianism of the Lok Sabha during the Janata regime (1977-79), > National Democratic Alliance (NDA) rule (1998-2004), UPA II > (2009-2014) and in the last two years of NDA rule. While some > instances of such resistance could be regarded as whimsical and > grandstanding, overall they drew attention to the fact that electoral > victory to the lower House may entitle a party to rule but not > necessarily govern unless it reaches out and engages with the central > concerns and interests embedded in the polity. This was clearly voiced > in the resistance against the Prevention of Terrorism Bill in 2002, > corruption charges against the government during 2011-14, and the > proposed amendment to the Land Acquisition, Rehabilitation and > Resettlement Act in 2015. But the Rajya Sabha is not merely meant to > play such a salutary oppositional role. Unfortunately, there has not > been much reflection with regard to the nature and purpose of this > House in India after the brilliant debate in this regard in the > Constituent Assembly. While it is important to highlight the case of > corruption in the election of the members to this House, and resist > the tendency of parties to pack the House with their high and mighties > without consideration to their being worthy or not to play the > representative role, it is imperative to draw attention to the role > that the Rajya Sabha needs to play in the Indian body politic today. > In the Constituent Assembly debates we find a set of four distinct > reasons advanced in defence of the Rajya Sabha. First, some members of > the Assembly saw it as a House of reflective and evaluative reasoning > removed from the hurry-scurry of everyday life. N. Gopalaswami > Ayyangar termed it as the House which can rein in “passions of the > moment”. Lokanath Mishra described it as “a sobering House, a > reviewing House, a House standing for quality and the members will be > exercising their right to be heard on the merits of what they say, for > their sobriety and knowledge of special problems; quantity, that is, > their number, is not much of moment”. In the same vein, M. > Ananthasayanam Ayyangar thought that in such a platform of reflective > consideration, “the genius of people may have full play”, and it can > make place for people “who may not be able to win a popular mandate”. > Clearly there was much elitism and condescension in such a conception > of the House, that led to frequent potshots between members of both > Houses in the early days of the Parliament that were eventually reined > in by rules of Privilege Motion. Second, apart from the review and > revaluation role, there was a broad consensus in the Assembly for the > need for a second legislative chamber to initiate proposals for public > policy, to elicit responsiveness from public authority, and to hold > governments accountable. The constitutional provisions on division of > work between the Houses clearly bear it out. However, in this > conception, the Rajya Sabha largely duplicates the functions of the > Lok Sabha and therefore, in the words of Abb? Siey?s, turns out to be > “superfluous”. Such an understanding has led to repeated introduction > of private members’ bills in the Lok Sabha for the abolition of the > Rajya Sabha, as well as moves by the enthusiasts of the House to > introduce bills to widen its jurisdiction. Needless to say, none of > these proposals has made much headway. A third conception saw the > House as the authoritative platform to accommodating diversity, > although much of this consideration laid emphasis on political > diversity reflecting federal arrangements, drawing parallels with the > United States in the process. In this conception while the Lower House > was meant to represent the citizen-community at large, the Upper > House, primarily voted in by elected members of the State Assemblies, > would represent the nation “as a differentiated whole”. Why did the political parties allege one another?

  1.  political parties had hidden propaganda
  2.  because of unethical practices
  3.  For poaching of vacant seats in Rajya Sabha
  4.  For their involvement in coal Scam

Solution : For poaching of vacant seats in Rajya Sabha

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Q15. > The recent elections to the Rajya Sabha to fill 57 vacant seats > became notorious for alleged poaching by political parties among the > ranks of their counterparts with charges of corruption blaring out > loud against one another. While such charges are not new, their extent > was magnified in this round since these elections were crucial for the > ruling Bharatiya Janata Party and the opposition Congress to decide > who holds the scales in the Upper House. The former has found many of > its pet legislative proposals stonewalled due to the lack of majority > support in the House, while the latter has turned it into an important > trench for its war of position against the ruling dispensation. While > the Rajya Sabha has generally played second fiddle to the Lok Sabha > during the periods of preponderance of a ruling regime in both the > Houses, it has become an important platform of resistance to the > majoritarianism of the Lok Sabha during the Janata regime (1977-79), > National Democratic Alliance (NDA) rule (1998-2004), UPA II > (2009-2014) and in the last two years of NDA rule. While some > instances of such resistance could be regarded as whimsical and > grandstanding, overall they drew attention to the fact that electoral > victory to the lower House may entitle a party to rule but not > necessarily govern unless it reaches out and engages with the central > concerns and interests embedded in the polity. This was clearly voiced > in the resistance against the Prevention of Terrorism Bill in 2002, > corruption charges against the government during 2011-14, and the > proposed amendment to the Land Acquisition, Rehabilitation and > Resettlement Act in 2015. But the Rajya Sabha is not merely meant to > play such a salutary oppositional role. Unfortunately, there has not > been much reflection with regard to the nature and purpose of this > House in India after the brilliant debate in this regard in the > Constituent Assembly. While it is important to highlight the case of > corruption in the election of the members to this House, and resist > the tendency of parties to pack the House with their high and mighties > without consideration to their being worthy or not to play the > representative role, it is imperative to draw attention to the role > that the Rajya Sabha needs to play in the Indian body politic today. > In the Constituent Assembly debates we find a set of four distinct > reasons advanced in defence of the Rajya Sabha. First, some members of > the Assembly saw it as a House of reflective and evaluative reasoning > removed from the hurry-scurry of everyday life. N. Gopalaswami > Ayyangar termed it as the House which can rein in “passions of the > moment”. Lokanath Mishra described it as “a sobering House, a > reviewing House, a House standing for quality and the members will be > exercising their right to be heard on the merits of what they say, for > their sobriety and knowledge of special problems; quantity, that is, > their number, is not much of moment”. In the same vein, M. > Ananthasayanam Ayyangar thought that in such a platform of reflective > consideration, “the genius of people may have full play”, and it can > make place for people “who may not be able to win a popular mandate”. > Clearly there was much elitism and condescension in such a conception > of the House, that led to frequent potshots between members of both > Houses in the early days of the Parliament that were eventually reined > in by rules of Privilege Motion. Second, apart from the review and > revaluation role, there was a broad consensus in the Assembly for the > need for a second legislative chamber to initiate proposals for public > policy, to elicit responsiveness from public authority, and to hold > governments accountable. The constitutional provisions on division of > work between the Houses clearly bear it out. However, in this > conception, the Rajya Sabha largely duplicates the functions of the > Lok Sabha and therefore, in the words of Abb? Siey?s, turns out to be > “superfluous”. Such an understanding has led to repeated introduction > of private members’ bills in the Lok Sabha for the abolition of the > Rajya Sabha, as well as moves by the enthusiasts of the House to > introduce bills to widen its jurisdiction. Needless to say, none of > these proposals has made much headway. A third conception saw the > House as the authoritative platform to accommodating diversity, > although much of this consideration laid emphasis on political > diversity reflecting federal arrangements, drawing parallels with the > United States in the process. In this conception while the Lower House > was meant to represent the citizen-community at large, the Upper > House, primarily voted in by elected members of the State Assemblies, > would represent the nation “as a differentiated whole”. Who has played second fiddle to the Lok Sabha?

  1.  Parliament
  2.  Political parties
  3.  Administration
  4.  Judiciary
  5.  Rajya Sabha

Solution : Rajya Sabha
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Solution :

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