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Reading Comprehension

Reading Comprehension: English Reading Comprehension Exercises with Answers, Sample Passages for Reading Comprehension Test for GRE, CAT, IELTS preparation

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English Reading Comprehension Test Questions and Answers. Improve your ability to read and comprehend English Passages

Q186. > Corruption is a broad term covering a wide range of misuse of > entrusted funds and power for personal gain i.e. Theft, fraud, > nepotism, abuse of power etc. A corrupt act is often - but not > necessarily - illegal. In handling corruption, you will often face a > Gray zones and dilemmas. In many countries, corruption is everywhere > and daily life is riddled with situations in the Gray zone between > legal and illegal. Many people accept petty corruption as a fact of > life. But the causes might differ, however, whether corruption results > from a need, a culture or simply from an opportunity too tempting not > to exploit, it influences the way we deal with it - or don’t deal with > it. Corruption can occur on different scales. There is corruption that > occurs as small favors between a small number of people (petty > corruption), corruption that affects the government on a large scale > (grand corruption), and corruption that is so prevalent that it is > part of the everyday structure of society, including corruption as one > of the symptoms of organized crime (systemic corruption). The main > reason for the spread of corruption is that the people in the highest > seat of power are corrupt unless the people at the top rung of power > are honest and free from corruption; there is absolutely no > possibility of eradicating corruption. If there is widespread > corruption in India , it is because the people at the top are really > corrupt .No subordinate will have to guts to be corrupt if the people > at the top of the administration are honest and take stern action > against the corrupt people .They cannot be harsh to the corrupt people > , since it is through the corrupt subordinates that the people at the > top get their share of the bribes .If one can make a discrete enquiry > with the pavement traders, he can find out how much the police and the > corporation councilors collect from the pavement traders .They say > that the money so collected is shared by people from the top to the > bottom. If the head is corrupt, what will the limbs do? The causes of > corruption in India also include excessive regulations, complicated > taxes and licensing systems, numerous government departments each with > opaque bureaucracy and discretionary powers, monopoly by government > controlled institutions on certain goods and services delivery, and > the lack of transparent laws and processes. There are significant > variations in level of corruption as well as in state government > efforts to reduce corruption across India. > > A 2005 study done by Transparency International in India found that > more than 62% of the people had firsthand experience of paying bribe > or peddling influence to get a job done in a public office. Taxes and > bribes are common between state borders; Transparency International > estimates that truckers pay annually 22,200 crores (US$ 4.5 billion) > in bribes. Government regulators and police share in bribe money, each > to the tune of 43% and 45% respectively. The en route stoppages > including those at checkpoints and entry-points take up to 11 hours in > a day. About 60% of these (forced) stoppages on road by concerned > authorities such as government regulators, police, forest, sales and > excise, octroi, weighing and measuring department are for extorting > money. The loss in productivity due to these stoppages is an important > national concern. The number of truck trips could increase by 40%, if > forced delays are avoided. According to a 2007 World Bank published > report, the travel time for a Delhi-Mumbai trip can be reduced by > about 2 days per trip if the corruption and associated regulatory > stoppages to extract bribes was eliminated. What is the main objective of writer behind writing the passage?

  1.  It gives an idea of right and wrong judgement.
  2.  To remove the corruption from top to bottom.
  3.  To throw light on corruption.
  4.  Both 1 and 2
  5.  None of these

Solution : To throw light on corruption.
Q187. > Corruption is a broad term covering a wide range of misuse of > entrusted funds and power for personal gain i.e. Theft, fraud, > nepotism, abuse of power etc. A corrupt act is often - but not > necessarily - illegal. In handling corruption, you will often face a > Gray zones and dilemmas. In many countries, corruption is everywhere > and daily life is riddled with situations in the Gray zone between > legal and illegal. Many people accept petty corruption as a fact of > life. But the causes might differ, however, whether corruption results > from a need, a culture or simply from an opportunity too tempting not > to exploit, it influences the way we deal with it - or don’t deal with > it. Corruption can occur on different scales. There is corruption that > occurs as small favors between a small number of people (petty > corruption), corruption that affects the government on a large scale > (grand corruption), and corruption that is so prevalent that it is > part of the everyday structure of society, including corruption as one > of the symptoms of organized crime (systemic corruption). The main > reason for the spread of corruption is that the people in the highest > seat of power are corrupt unless the people at the top rung of power > are honest and free from corruption; there is absolutely no > possibility of eradicating corruption. If there is widespread > corruption in India , it is because the people at the top are really > corrupt .No subordinate will have to guts to be corrupt if the people > at the top of the administration are honest and take stern action > against the corrupt people .They cannot be harsh to the corrupt people > , since it is through the corrupt subordinates that the people at the > top get their share of the bribes .If one can make a discrete enquiry > with the pavement traders, he can find out how much the police and the > corporation councilors collect from the pavement traders .They say > that the money so collected is shared by people from the top to the > bottom. If the head is corrupt, what will the limbs do? The causes of > corruption in India also include excessive regulations, complicated > taxes and licensing systems, numerous government departments each with > opaque bureaucracy and discretionary powers, monopoly by government > controlled institutions on certain goods and services delivery, and > the lack of transparent laws and processes. There are significant > variations in level of corruption as well as in state government > efforts to reduce corruption across India. > > A 2005 study done by Transparency International in India found that > more than 62% of the people had firsthand experience of paying bribe > or peddling influence to get a job done in a public office. Taxes and > bribes are common between state borders; Transparency International > estimates that truckers pay annually 22,200 crores (US$ 4.5 billion) > in bribes. Government regulators and police share in bribe money, each > to the tune of 43% and 45% respectively. The en route stoppages > including those at checkpoints and entry-points take up to 11 hours in > a day. About 60% of these (forced) stoppages on road by concerned > authorities such as government regulators, police, forest, sales and > excise, octroi, weighing and measuring department are for extorting > money. The loss in productivity due to these stoppages is an important > national concern. The number of truck trips could increase by 40%, if > forced delays are avoided. According to a 2007 World Bank published > report, the travel time for a Delhi-Mumbai trip can be reduced by > about 2 days per trip if the corruption and associated regulatory > stoppages to extract bribes was eliminated. Why the corruption is increasing so rapidly?

  1.  Because all the employees are interested in it.
  2.  The people in the highest seat of power our involved in the corruption.
  3.  Government is unable to control over the corruption.
  4.  There is a lack of strict laws against it.
  5.  None of these

Solution : The people in the highest seat of power our involved in the corruption.

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Q188. > Corruption is a broad term covering a wide range of misuse of > entrusted funds and power for personal gain i.e. Theft, fraud, > nepotism, abuse of power etc. A corrupt act is often - but not > necessarily - illegal. In handling corruption, you will often face a > Gray zones and dilemmas. In many countries, corruption is everywhere > and daily life is riddled with situations in the Gray zone between > legal and illegal. Many people accept petty corruption as a fact of > life. But the causes might differ, however, whether corruption results > from a need, a culture or simply from an opportunity too tempting not > to exploit, it influences the way we deal with it - or don’t deal with > it. Corruption can occur on different scales. There is corruption that > occurs as small favors between a small number of people (petty > corruption), corruption that affects the government on a large scale > (grand corruption), and corruption that is so prevalent that it is > part of the everyday structure of society, including corruption as one > of the symptoms of organized crime (systemic corruption). The main > reason for the spread of corruption is that the people in the highest > seat of power are corrupt unless the people at the top rung of power > are honest and free from corruption; there is absolutely no > possibility of eradicating corruption. If there is widespread > corruption in India , it is because the people at the top are really > corrupt .No subordinate will have to guts to be corrupt if the people > at the top of the administration are honest and take stern action > against the corrupt people .They cannot be harsh to the corrupt people > , since it is through the corrupt subordinates that the people at the > top get their share of the bribes .If one can make a discrete enquiry > with the pavement traders, he can find out how much the police and the > corporation councilors collect from the pavement traders .They say > that the money so collected is shared by people from the top to the > bottom. If the head is corrupt, what will the limbs do? The causes of > corruption in India also include excessive regulations, complicated > taxes and licensing systems, numerous government departments each with > opaque bureaucracy and discretionary powers, monopoly by government > controlled institutions on certain goods and services delivery, and > the lack of transparent laws and processes. There are significant > variations in level of corruption as well as in state government > efforts to reduce corruption across India. > > A 2005 study done by Transparency International in India found that > more than 62% of the people had firsthand experience of paying bribe > or peddling influence to get a job done in a public office. Taxes and > bribes are common between state borders; Transparency International > estimates that truckers pay annually 22,200 crores (US$ 4.5 billion) > in bribes. Government regulators and police share in bribe money, each > to the tune of 43% and 45% respectively. The en route stoppages > including those at checkpoints and entry-points take up to 11 hours in > a day. About 60% of these (forced) stoppages on road by concerned > authorities such as government regulators, police, forest, sales and > excise, octroi, weighing and measuring department are for extorting > money. The loss in productivity due to these stoppages is an important > national concern. The number of truck trips could increase by 40%, if > forced delays are avoided. According to a 2007 World Bank published > report, the travel time for a Delhi-Mumbai trip can be reduced by > about 2 days per trip if the corruption and associated regulatory > stoppages to extract bribes was eliminated. What do you understand by Gray zones as used in the passage?

  1.  Double meaning.
  2.  A puzzled situation but can be solved.
  3.  Lack of knowledge.
  4.  A topic that is not clear or full of ambiguity.
  5.  None of these

Solution : A topic that is not clear or full of ambiguity.
Q189. > In February 2010 the Medical Council of India announced a major > change in the regulation governing the establishment of medical > colleges. With this change, corporate entities were permitted to open > medical colleges. The new regulation also carried the following > warning: “permission shall be withdrawn if the colleges resort to > commercialization”. Since the regulation does not elaborate on what > constitutes “resorting to commercialization”, this will presumably be > a matter left to the discretion of the Government. A basic requirement > for a new medical college is a pre-existing hospital that will serve > as a teaching hospital. Corporate entities have hospitals in the major > metros and that is where they will have to locate medical colleges. > The earlier mandated land requirement for a medical college campus, a > minimum of 25 acres of contiguous land, cannot be fulfilled in the > metros. Not surprisingly, yet another tweak has been made in the > regulation, prescribing 10 acres as the new minimum campus size for 9 > cities including the main metros. With this, the stage is set for > corporate entities to enter the medical education market. Until now, > medical education in India has been projected as a not-for profit > activity to be organised for the public good. While private bodies can > run medical colleges, these can only be societies or trusts, legally > non-profit organizations. In opening the door to corporate colleges, > thus, a major policy change has been effected without changing the law > or even a discussion in Parliament, but by simply getting a compliant > MCI to change the regulation on establishment of medical colleges. > This and another changes have been justified in the name of addressing > the shortage of doctors. At the same time, over 50 existing medical > colleges, including 15 run by the government, have been prohibited > from admitting students in 2010 for having failed to meet the basic > standards prescribed. Ninety per cent of these colleges have come up > in the last 5 years. Particularly shocking is the phenomenon of > government colleges falling short of standards approved by the > Government. Why are state government institutions not able to meet the > requirements that have been approved by the central government? A > severe problem faced by government-run institutions is attracting and > retaining teaching faculty, and this is likely to be among the major > reasons for these colleges failing to satisfy the MCI norms. The > crisis building up on the faculty front has been flagged by various > commissions looking into problems of medical education over the years. > An indicator of the crisis is the attempt to conjure up faculty when > MCI carries out inspections of new colleges, one of its regulatory > functions. Judging by news reports, the practice of presenting fake > faculty – students or private medical practitioners hired for the day > – during MCI inspections in private colleges is common. What is > interesting is that even government colleges are adopting unscrupulous > methods. Another indicator is the extraordinary scheme, verging on the > ridiculous that is being put in place by the MCI to make inspections > ‘foolproof’. Faculty in all medical colleges are to be issued an > RFID-based smart card by th MCI with a unique Faculty Number. The > card, it is argued, will eliminate the possibility of a teacher being > shown on the faculty of more than one college and establish if the > qualifications of a teacher are genuine. In the future, it is > projected that biometric RFID readers will be installed in the > colleges that will enable a Faculty Identification, Tracking and > Monitoring System to monitor faculty from within the college and even > remotely from MCI headquarters. The picture above does not even start > to reveal the true and pathetic situation of medical care especially > in rural India. Only a fraction of the doctors and nursing > professionals serve rural areas where 70 per cent of our population > lives. The Health Ministry, with the help of the MCI, has been active > in proposing yet another ‘innovative’ solution to the problem of lack > of doctors in the rural areas. The proposal is for a > three-and-a-half-year course to obtain the degree of Bachelor of Rural > Medicine and Surgery (BRMS). Only rural candidates would be able to > join this course. The study and training would happen at two different > levels – Community Health Centers for 18 months, and sub-divisional > hospitals for a further period of 2 years – and be conducted by > retired professors. After completion of training, they would only be > able to serve in their own state in district hospitals, community > health centres, and primary health centres. The BRMS proposal has > invited sharp criticism from some doctors’ organizations on the > grounds that it is discriminatory to have two different standards of > health care – one for urban and the other for rural areas, and that > the health care provided by such graduates will be compromised. At the > other end is the opinion expressed by some that “something is better > than nothing”, that since doctors do not want to serve in rural areas, > the government may as well create a new cadre of medics who will be > obliged to serve there. The debate will surely pick up after the > government formally lays out its plans. What is apparent is that > neither this proposal nor the various stopgap measures adopted so far > address the root of the problem of health care. The far larger issue > is government policy, the low priority attached by the government to > the social sector as a whole and the health sector in particular, > evidenced in the paltry allocations for maintaining and upgrading > medical infrastructure and medical education and for looking after > precious human resources. What solution is being offered by the Health Ministry for the shortage of doctors in rural areas?

  1.  Increase the number of government run hospitals in the rural areas thereby increasing the number of doctors catering to the people in these regions.
  2.  Make it mandatory for doctors serving in the urban areas to serve in the rural areas for a specific number of years
  3.  Set up increasing number of community health centers in rural areas
  4.  Hire retired professors of medicine to offer medical help to people living in the rural areas till the time more doctors are appointed
  5.  Run a separate medical course for three and a half years which can be taken up only by rural candidates who would ultimately serve in the rural areas

Solution : Run a separate medical course for three and a half years which can be taken up only by rural candidates who would ultimately serve in the rural areas

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Q190. > In February 2010 the Medical Council of India announced a major change > in the regulation governing the establishment of medical colleges. > With this change, corporate entities were permitted to open medical > colleges. The new regulation also carried the following warning: > “permission shall be withdrawn if the colleges resort to > commercialization”. Since the regulation does not elaborate on what > constitutes “resorting to commercialization”, this will presumably be > a matter left to the discretion of the Government. A basic requirement > for a new medical college is a pre-existing hospital that will serve > as a teaching hospital. Corporate entities have hospitals in the major > metros and that is where they will have to locate medical colleges. > The earlier mandated land requirement for a medical college campus, a > minimum of 25 acres of contiguous land, cannot be fulfilled in the > metros. Not surprisingly, yet another tweak has been made in the > regulation, prescribing 10 acres as the new minimum campus size for 9 > cities including the main metros. With this, the stage is set for > corporate entities to enter the medical education market. Until now, > medical education in India has been projected as a not-for profit > activity to be organised for the public good. While private bodies can > run medical colleges, these can only be societies or trusts, legally > non-profit organizations. In opening the door to corporate colleges, > thus, a major policy change has been effected without changing the law > or even a discussion in Parliament, but by simply getting a compliant > MCI to change the regulation on establishment of medical colleges. > This and another changes have been justified in the name of addressing > the shortage of doctors. At the same time, over 50 existing medical > colleges, including 15 run by the government, have been prohibited > from admitting students in 2010 for having failed to meet the basic > standards prescribed. Ninety per cent of these colleges have come up > in the last 5 years. Particularly shocking is the phenomenon of > government colleges falling short of standards approved by the > Government. Why are state government institutions not able to meet the > requirements that have been approved by the central government? A > severe problem faced by government-run institutions is attracting and > retaining teaching faculty, and this is likely to be among the major > reasons for these colleges failing to satisfy the MCI norms. The > crisis building up on the faculty front has been flagged by various > commissions looking into problems of medical education over the years. > An indicator of the crisis is the attempt to conjure up faculty when > MCI carries out inspections of new colleges, one of its regulatory > functions. Judging by news reports, the practice of presenting fake > faculty – students or private medical practitioners hired for the day > – during MCI inspections in private colleges is common. What is > interesting is that even government colleges are adopting unscrupulous > methods. Another indicator is the extraordinary scheme, verging on the > ridiculous that is being put in place by the MCI to make inspections > ‘foolproof’. Faculty in all medical colleges are to be issued an > RFID-based smart card by th MCI with a unique Faculty Number. The > card, it is argued, will eliminate the possibility of a teacher being > shown on the faculty of more than one college and establish if the > qualifications of a teacher are genuine. In the future, it is > projected that biometric RFID readers will be installed in the > colleges that will enable a Faculty Identification, Tracking and > Monitoring System to monitor faculty from within the college and even > remotely from MCI headquarters. The picture above does not even start > to reveal the true and pathetic situation of medical care especially > in rural India. Only a fraction of the doctors and nursing > professionals serve rural areas where 70 per cent of our population > lives. The Health Ministry, with the help of the MCI, has been active > in proposing yet another ‘innovative’ solution to the problem of lack > of doctors in the rural areas. The proposal is for a > three-and-a-half-year course to obtain the degree of Bachelor of Rural > Medicine and Surgery (BRMS). Only rural candidates would be able to > join this course. The study and training would happen at two different > levels – Community Health Centers for 18 months, and sub-divisional > hospitals for a further period of 2 years – and be conducted by > retired professors. After completion of training, they would only be > able to serve in their own state in district hospitals, community > health centres, and primary health centres. The BRMS proposal has > invited sharp criticism from some doctors’ organizations on the > grounds that it is discriminatory to have two different standards of > health care – one for urban and the other for rural areas, and that > the health care provided by such graduates will be compromised. At the > other end is the opinion expressed by some that “something is better > than nothing”, that since doctors do not want to serve in rural areas, > the government may as well create a new cadre of medics who will be > obliged to serve there. The debate will surely pick up after the > government formally lays out its plans. What is apparent is that > neither this proposal nor the various stopgap measures adopted so far > address the root of the problem of health care. The far larger issue > is government policy, the low priority attached by the government to > the social sector as a whole and the health sector in particular, > evidenced in the paltry allocations for maintaining and upgrading > medical infrastructure and medical education and for looking after > precious human resources. Why have some existing medical colleges been prohibited from admitting students?

  1.  As these have adopted corrupt practices and have been taking huge donations from their students
  2.  As all these colleges were illegally set up and were not approved by the government in the first place
  3.  As the course offered by these colleges is not in line with the course offered by the government run colleges
  4.  As these have failed to meet the norms set by the central government for running the college
  5.  As there are absolutely no faculty members left in these colleges to teach students

Solution : As these have failed to meet the norms set by the central government for running the college
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Solution :

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