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Reading Comprehension

Reading Comprehension: English Reading Comprehension Exercises with Answers, Sample Passages for Reading Comprehension Test for GRE, CAT, IELTS preparation

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English Reading Comprehension Test Questions and Answers. Improve your ability to read and comprehend English Passages

Q226. > Though the Cold War has ended, selective tactics are still continuing > for ensuring the military and economic dominance of developed > countries. Various types of technology denial regimes are still being > enforced which are now being mainly targeted against developing > countries like India. Today, we in India encounter twin problems. On > one side there is a large scale strengthening of our neighbours > through supply of arms and clandestine support to their nuclear and > missile programmes and on the other side all efforts are being made to > weaken our indigenous technology growth through control regimes and > dumping of low-tech systems, accompanied with high commercial pitch in > critical areas. Growth of indigenoustechnology and self-reliance are > the only answer to the problem. Thus in the environment around India, > the number of missiles and nuclear powers are continuously increasing > and destructive weapons continue to pile up around us, in spite of > arms reduction treaties. To understand the implications of various > types of warfare that may affect us, we need to take a quick look at > the evolution of war weaponry and the types of warfare. I am > highlighting this point for the reason that in less than a century we > could see change in the nature of warfare and its effects on society. > In early years of human history it was mostly direct human warfare. > During the twentieth century up to about 1990, the warfare was weapon > driven. The weapons used were guns, tanks, aircraft, ships, submarines > and the nuclear weapons deployed on land/sea/air and also > reconnaissance spacecraft. Proliferation of conventional nuclear and > biological weapons was at a peak owing to the competition between the > superpowers. The next phase, in a new form, has just started from 1990 > onwards. The world has graduated into economic warfare. The means used > is control of market forces through high technology. The participating > nations, apart from the USA, are Japan, the UK, France, Germany, > certain South-East Asia countries and a few others. The driving force > is the generation of wealth with certain types of economic doctrine. > The urgent issue we need to address collectively as a nation is, how > do we handle the tactics of economic and military dominance in this > new form coming from the backdoor? Today technology is the main driver > of economic development at the national level. Therefore, we have to > develop indigenous technologies to enhance our competitive edge and to > generate national wealth in all segments of economy. Therefore, the > need of the hour is arm India with technology. According to the author, the most effective way to counter our major problems is to (A) develop indigenous technologies. (B) complete with other countries in their warring tactics. (C) generate national wealth in all segments of economy.

  1.  All (A), (B) & (C)
  2.  (A) & (B) only
  3.  (B) & (C) only
  4.  (A) & (C) only
  5.  None of these

Solution : All (A), (B) & (C)
Q227. > Though the Cold War has ended, selective tactics are still continuing > for ensuring the military and economic dominance of developed > countries. Various types of technology denial regimes are still being > enforced which are now being mainly targeted against developing > countries like India. Today, we in India encounter twin problems. On > one side there is a large scale strengthening of our neighbours > through supply of arms and clandestine support to their nuclear and > missile programmes and on the other side all efforts are being made to > weaken our indigenous technology growth through control regimes and > dumping of low-tech systems, accompanied with high commercial pitch in > critical areas. Growth of indigenoustechnology and self-reliance are > the only answer to the problem. Thus in the environment around India, > the number of missiles and nuclear powers are continuously increasing > and destructive weapons continue to pile up around us, in spite of > arms reduction treaties. To understand the implications of various > types of warfare that may affect us, we need to take a quick look at > the evolution of war weaponry and the types of warfare. I am > highlighting this point for the reason that in less than a century we > could see change in the nature of warfare and its effects on society. > In early years of human history it was mostly direct human warfare. > During the twentieth century up to about 1990, the warfare was weapon > driven. The weapons used were guns, tanks, aircraft, ships, submarines > and the nuclear weapons deployed on land/sea/air and also > reconnaissance spacecraft. Proliferation of conventional nuclear and > biological weapons was at a peak owing to the competition between the > superpowers. The next phase, in a new form, has just started from 1990 > onwards. The world has graduated into economic warfare. The means used > is control of market forces through high technology. The participating > nations, apart from the USA, are Japan, the UK, France, Germany, > certain South-East Asia countries and a few others. The driving force > is the generation of wealth with certain types of economic doctrine. > The urgent issue we need to address collectively as a nation is, how > do we handle the tactics of economic and military dominance in this > new form coming from the backdoor? Today technology is the main driver > of economic development at the national level. Therefore, we have to > develop indigenous technologies to enhance our competitive edge and to > generate national wealth in all segments of economy. Therefore, the > need of the hour is arm India with technology. What, according to the author, is the solution to our problems in the international field? (A) Importing up-to-date technology and nuclear equipments from developed countries. (B) Developing our own in-house technology. (C) Eliminating dependence on developed countries.

  1.  (A) & (B) only
  2.  (A) & (C) only
  3.  (B) & (C) only
  4.  All (A), (B) & (C)
  5.  None of these

Solution : (B) & (C) only

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Q228. > Though the Cold War has ended, selective tactics are still continuing > for ensuring the military and economic dominance of developed > countries. Various types of technology denial regimes are still being > enforced which are now being mainly targeted against developing > countries like India. Today, we in India encounter twin problems. On > one side there is a large scale strengthening of our neighbours > through supply of arms and clandestine support to their nuclear and > missile programmes and on the other side all efforts are being made to > weaken our indigenous technology growth through control regimes and > dumping of low-tech systems, accompanied with high commercial pitch in > critical areas. Growth of indigenoustechnology and self-reliance are > the only answer to the problem. Thus in the environment around India, > the number of missiles and nuclear powers are continuously increasing > and destructive weapons continue to pile up around us, in spite of > arms reduction treaties. To understand the implications of various > types of warfare that may affect us, we need to take a quick look at > the evolution of war weaponry and the types of warfare. I am > highlighting this point for the reason that in less than a century we > could see change in the nature of warfare and its effects on society. > In early years of human history it was mostly direct human warfare. > During the twentieth century up to about 1990, the warfare was weapon > driven. The weapons used were guns, tanks, aircraft, ships, submarines > and the nuclear weapons deployed on land/sea/air and also > reconnaissance spacecraft. Proliferation of conventional nuclear and > biological weapons was at a peak owing to the competition between the > superpowers. The next phase, in a new form, has just started from 1990 > onwards. The world has graduated into economic warfare. The means used > is control of market forces through high technology. The participating > nations, apart from the USA, are Japan, the UK, France, Germany, > certain South-East Asia countries and a few others. The driving force > is the generation of wealth with certain types of economic doctrine. > The urgent issue we need to address collectively as a nation is, how > do we handle the tactics of economic and military dominance in this > new form coming from the backdoor? Today technology is the main driver > of economic development at the national level. Therefore, we have to > develop indigenous technologies to enhance our competitive edge and to > generate national wealth in all segments of economy. Therefore, the > need of the hour is arm India with technology. What is the general outcome of arms reduction treaties as a whole according to the author of the passage?

  1.  They seem to have become totally defunct
  2.  They have achieved the desired outcome in most cases
  3.  They have resulted in curbing the trade of destructive weapons
  4.  Piling up of weapons has significantly reduced due to such treaties
  5.  None of these

Solution : They seem to have become totally defunct
Q229. > Though the Cold War has ended, selective tactics are still continuing > for ensuring the military and economic dominance of developed > countries. Various types of technology denial regimes are still being > enforced which are now being mainly targeted against developing > countries like India. Today, we in India encounter twin problems. On > one side there is a large scale strengthening of our neighbours > through supply of arms and clandestine support to their nuclear and > missile programmes and on the other side all efforts are being made to > weaken our indigenous technology growth through control regimes and > dumping of low-tech systems, accompanied with high commercial pitch in > critical areas. Growth of indigenoustechnology and self-reliance are > the only answer to the problem. Thus in the environment around India, > the number of missiles and nuclear powers are continuously increasing > and destructive weapons continue to pile up around us, in spite of > arms reduction treaties. To understand the implications of various > types of warfare that may affect us, we need to take a quick look at > the evolution of war weaponry and the types of warfare. I am > highlighting this point for the reason that in less than a century we > could see change in the nature of warfare and its effects on society. > In early years of human history it was mostly direct human warfare. > During the twentieth century up to about 1990, the warfare was weapon > driven. The weapons used were guns, tanks, aircraft, ships, submarines > and the nuclear weapons deployed on land/sea/air and also > reconnaissance spacecraft. Proliferation of conventional nuclear and > biological weapons was at a peak owing to the competition between the > superpowers. The next phase, in a new form, has just started from 1990 > onwards. The world has graduated into economic warfare. The means used > is control of market forces through high technology. The participating > nations, apart from the USA, are Japan, the UK, France, Germany, > certain South-East Asia countries and a few others. The driving force > is the generation of wealth with certain types of economic doctrine. > The urgent issue we need to address collectively as a nation is, how > do we handle the tactics of economic and military dominance in this > new form coming from the backdoor? Today technology is the main driver > of economic development at the national level. Therefore, we have to > develop indigenous technologies to enhance our competitive edge and to > generate national wealth in all segments of economy. Therefore, the > need of the hour is arm India with technology. What, according to the author, is the immediate problem to be collectively resolved by our country?

  1.  To counter the dominance of developed countries through money and muscle power
  2.  To eradicate poverty and become economically self reliant
  3.  To control the exorbitant rate of population growth
  4.  To develop indigenous technology to manufacture mightier weapons
  5.  None of these

Solution : To eradicate poverty and become economically self reliant

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Q230. > Management education gained new academic stature within US > Universities and greater respect from outside during the 1960s and > 1970s. Some observers attribute the competitive superiority of US > corporations to the quality of business education. In 1978, a > management professor, Herbert A. Simon of Carnegie Mellon University, > won the Nobel Prize in economics for his work in decision theory. And > the popularity of business education continued to grow since 1960’s > and the MBA has become known as the passport to the good life. By the > 1980s, however, US business schools faced critics who charged that > learning had little relevance to real business problems. Some went so > far as to blame business schools for the decline in US > competitiveness. Amidst the criticisms, four distinct arguments may be > discerned. The first is that business schools must be either > unnecessary or deleterious because Japan does so well without them. > Underlying these arguments is the idea that management ability cannot > be taught-one is either born with it or must acquire it over years of > practical experience. A second argument is that business schools are > overly academic and theoretical. They teach quantitative models that > have little application to real world problems. Third, they give > inadequate attention to shop floor issues, to production processes and > to management resources. Finally, it is argued that they encourage > undesirable attitudes in students, such as placing value in the short > term, on bottom line targets, while neglecting longer term > developmental criteria. In summary, some business executives complain > that MBA’s are incapable of making day-to-day peritoneal decisions, > unable to communicate and to motivate people, and unwilling to accept > responsibility for following through implementation plans. We shall > analyze these criticisms after having reviewed experiences in other > countries. In contrast to be the expansion and development of business > education in the United States and more recently in Europe, Japanese > business schools graduate no more than two hundred MBA’s each year. > The Keio Business School (KBS) was the only graduate school of > management in the entire country until the mid 1970s and it still > boasts the only two-year masters programme. The absence of business > schools in Japan would appear in contradiction with the high priority > placed upon learning by its Confucian culture. Confucian colleges > taught administrative skills as early as 1630 and Japan wholeheartedly > accepted Western learning following the Meiji restoration of 1868 when > hundreds of students were dispatched to universities in the U.S.A., > Germany, England and France, to learn the secrets of western > technology and modernization. Moreover, the Japanese educational > system is highly developed and intensely competitive and can be > credited for raising the literary and mathematical abilities of the > Japanese to the highest level in the world. Until recently, Japanese > corporations have not been interested in using either local or foreign > business schools for the development of their future executives. Their > in-company-training programmers have sought the socialization of > newcomers, the younger the better. The training is highly specific and > those who receive it. Have neither the capacity nor the incentive to > quit. The prevailing belief says Imai, is that management should be > borne out of experience and many years of effort and not learnt from > educational institutions. A 1960 survey of Japanese senior executives > confirmed that a majority (54%) believed that managerial capabilities > can be attained only on the job and not in universities. However, this > view seems to be changing, the same survey revealed that even as early > as 1960, 37% of senior executives felt that the universities should > teach integrate professional management. In the 1980s, a combination > of increased competitive pressures and greater multi-nationalisation > of Japanese business are making the Japanese take a fresh look at > Management Education. The 1960s and 1970s can best be described as a period

  1.  when quality business education contributed to the superiority of US corporations.
  2.  when the number of MBA’s rose from under 5,000 to over 50,000.
  3.  when management education gained new academic stature and greater respect.
  4.  when the MBA became more disreputable.
  5.  people realized that management ability cannot be taught.

Solution : when management education gained new academic stature and greater respect.
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