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Reading Comprehension

Reading Comprehension: English Reading Comprehension Exercises with Answers, Sample Passages for Reading Comprehension Test for GRE, CAT, IELTS preparation

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English Reading Comprehension Test Questions and Answers. Improve your ability to read and comprehend English Passages

Q236. > Management education gained new academic stature within US > Universities and greater respect from outside during the 1960s and > 1970s. Some observers attribute the competitive superiority of US > corporations to the quality of business education. In 1978, a > management professor, Herbert A. Simon of Carnegie Mellon University, > won the Nobel Prize in economics for his work in decision theory. And > the popularity of business education continued to grow since 1960’s > and the MBA has become known as the passport to the good life. By the > 1980s, however, US business schools faced critics who charged that > learning had little relevance to real business problems. Some went so > far as to blame business schools for the decline in US > competitiveness. Amidst the criticisms, four distinct arguments may be > discerned. The first is that business schools must be either > unnecessary or deleterious because Japan does so well without them. > Underlying these arguments is the idea that management ability cannot > be taught-one is either born with it or must acquire it over years of > practical experience. A second argument is that business schools are > overly academic and theoretical. They teach quantitative models that > have little application to real world problems. Third, they give > inadequate attention to shop floor issues, to production processes and > to management resources. Finally, it is argued that they encourage > undesirable attitudes in students, such as placing value in the short > term, on bottom line targets, while neglecting longer term > developmental criteria. In summary, some business executives complain > that MBA’s are incapable of making day-to-day peritoneal decisions, > unable to communicate and to motivate people, and unwilling to accept > responsibility for following through implementation plans. We shall > analyze these criticisms after having reviewed experiences in other > countries. In contrast to be the expansion and development of business > education in the United States and more recently in Europe, Japanese > business schools graduate no more than two hundred MBA’s each year. > The Keio Business School (KBS) was the only graduate school of > management in the entire country until the mid 1970s and it still > boasts the only two-year masters programme. The absence of business > schools in Japan would appear in contradiction with the high priority > placed upon learning by its Confucian culture. Confucian colleges > taught administrative skills as early as 1630 and Japan wholeheartedly > accepted Western learning following the Meiji restoration of 1868 when > hundreds of students were dispatched to universities in the U.S.A., > Germany, England and France, to learn the secrets of western > technology and modernization. Moreover, the Japanese educational > system is highly developed and intensely competitive and can be > credited for raising the literary and mathematical abilities of the > Japanese to the highest level in the world. Until recently, Japanese > corporations have not been interested in using either local or foreign > business schools for the development of their future executives. Their > in-company-training programmers have sought the socialization of > newcomers, the younger the better. The training is highly specific and > those who receive it. Have neither the capacity nor the incentive to > quit. The prevailing belief says Imai, is that management should be > borne out of experience and many years of effort and not learnt from > educational institutions. A 1960 survey of Japanese senior executives > confirmed that a majority (54%) believed that managerial capabilities > can be attained only on the job and not in universities. However, this > view seems to be changing, the same survey revealed that even as early > as 1960, 37% of senior executives felt that the universities should > teach integrate professional management. In the 1980s, a combination > of increased competitive pressures and greater multi-nationalisation > of Japanese business are making the Japanese take a fresh look at > Management Education. The Japanese were initially able to do without business schools as a result of:

  1.  their highly developed and intensively competitive education system.
  2.  dispatching hundreds of students to learn the secrets of western technology and modernization.
  3.  their highly specific in-company training programmes.
  4.  prevailing beliefs regarding educational institutions.
  5.  a perception that it was a ‘passport to the good life’.

Solution : their highly developed and intensively competitive education system.
Q237. > Management education gained new academic stature within US > Universities and greater respect from outside during the 1960s and > 1970s. Some observers attribute the competitive superiority of US > corporations to the quality of business education. In 1978, a > management professor, Herbert A. Simon of Carnegie Mellon University, > won the Nobel Prize in economics for his work in decision theory. And > the popularity of business education continued to grow since 1960’s > and the MBA has become known as the passport to the good life. By the > 1980s, however, US business schools faced critics who charged that > learning had little relevance to real business problems. Some went so > far as to blame business schools for the decline in US > competitiveness. Amidst the criticisms, four distinct arguments may be > discerned. The first is that business schools must be either > unnecessary or deleterious because Japan does so well without them. > Underlying these arguments is the idea that management ability cannot > be taught-one is either born with it or must acquire it over years of > practical experience. A second argument is that business schools are > overly academic and theoretical. They teach quantitative models that > have little application to real world problems. Third, they give > inadequate attention to shop floor issues, to production processes and > to management resources. Finally, it is argued that they encourage > undesirable attitudes in students, such as placing value in the short > term, on bottom line targets, while neglecting longer term > developmental criteria. In summary, some business executives complain > that MBA’s are incapable of making day-to-day peritoneal decisions, > unable to communicate and to motivate people, and unwilling to accept > responsibility for following through implementation plans. We shall > analyze these criticisms after having reviewed experiences in other > countries. In contrast to be the expansion and development of business > education in the United States and more recently in Europe, Japanese > business schools graduate no more than two hundred MBA’s each year. > The Keio Business School (KBS) was the only graduate school of > management in the entire country until the mid 1970s and it still > boasts the only two-year masters programme. The absence of business > schools in Japan would appear in contradiction with the high priority > placed upon learning by its Confucian culture. Confucian colleges > taught administrative skills as early as 1630 and Japan wholeheartedly > accepted Western learning following the Meiji restoration of 1868 when > hundreds of students were dispatched to universities in the U.S.A., > Germany, England and France, to learn the secrets of western > technology and modernization. Moreover, the Japanese educational > system is highly developed and intensely competitive and can be > credited for raising the literary and mathematical abilities of the > Japanese to the highest level in the world. Until recently, Japanese > corporations have not been interested in using either local or foreign > business schools for the development of their future executives. Their > in-company-training programmers have sought the socialization of > newcomers, the younger the better. The training is highly specific and > those who receive it. Have neither the capacity nor the incentive to > quit. The prevailing belief says Imai, is that management should be > borne out of experience and many years of effort and not learnt from > educational institutions. A 1960 survey of Japanese senior executives > confirmed that a majority (54%) believed that managerial capabilities > can be attained only on the job and not in universities. However, this > view seems to be changing, the same survey revealed that even as early > as 1960, 37% of senior executives felt that the universities should > teach integrate professional management. In the 1980s, a combination > of increased competitive pressures and greater multi-nationalisation > of Japanese business are making the Japanese take a fresh look at > Management Education. The Japanese modified their views on management education because of:

  1.  greater exposure to U.S. MBA programmes.
  2.  the need to develop worldwide contacts and become Americanised.
  3.  the outstanding success of business schools in the U.S. during the 1960’s and 1970s.
  4.  a combination of increased competitive pressures and greater multinationalisation of Japanese business.
  5.  their highly specific in-company training programmes.

Solution : a combination of increased competitive pressures and greater multinationalisation of Japanese business.

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Q238. > Management education gained new academic stature within US > Universities and greater respect from outside during the 1960s and > 1970s. Some observers attribute the competitive superiority of US > corporations to the quality of business education. In 1978, a > management professor, Herbert A. Simon of Carnegie Mellon University, > won the Nobel Prize in economics for his work in decision theory. And > the popularity of business education continued to grow since 1960’s > and the MBA has become known as the passport to the good life. By the > 1980s, however, US business schools faced critics who charged that > learning had little relevance to real business problems. Some went so > far as to blame business schools for the decline in US > competitiveness. Amidst the criticisms, four distinct arguments may be > discerned. The first is that business schools must be either > unnecessary or deleterious because Japan does so well without them. > Underlying these arguments is the idea that management ability cannot > be taught-one is either born with it or must acquire it over years of > practical experience. A second argument is that business schools are > overly academic and theoretical. They teach quantitative models that > have little application to real world problems. Third, they give > inadequate attention to shop floor issues, to production processes and > to management resources. Finally, it is argued that they encourage > undesirable attitudes in students, such as placing value in the short > term, on bottom line targets, while neglecting longer term > developmental criteria. In summary, some business executives complain > that MBA’s are incapable of making day-to-day peritoneal decisions, > unable to communicate and to motivate people, and unwilling to accept > responsibility for following through implementation plans. We shall > analyze these criticisms after having reviewed experiences in other > countries. In contrast to be the expansion and development of business > education in the United States and more recently in Europe, Japanese > business schools graduate no more than two hundred MBA’s each year. > The Keio Business School (KBS) was the only graduate school of > management in the entire country until the mid 1970s and it still > boasts the only two-year masters programme. The absence of business > schools in Japan would appear in contradiction with the high priority > placed upon learning by its Confucian culture. Confucian colleges > taught administrative skills as early as 1630 and Japan wholeheartedly > accepted Western learning following the Meiji restoration of 1868 when > hundreds of students were dispatched to universities in the U.S.A., > Germany, England and France, to learn the secrets of western > technology and modernization. Moreover, the Japanese educational > system is highly developed and intensely competitive and can be > credited for raising the literary and mathematical abilities of the > Japanese to the highest level in the world. Until recently, Japanese > corporations have not been interested in using either local or foreign > business schools for the development of their future executives. Their > in-company-training programmers have sought the socialization of > newcomers, the younger the better. The training is highly specific and > those who receive it. Have neither the capacity nor the incentive to > quit. The prevailing belief says Imai, is that management should be > borne out of experience and many years of effort and not learnt from > educational institutions. A 1960 survey of Japanese senior executives > confirmed that a majority (54%) believed that managerial capabilities > can be attained only on the job and not in universities. However, this > view seems to be changing, the same survey revealed that even as early > as 1960, 37% of senior executives felt that the universities should > teach integrate professional management. In the 1980s, a combination > of increased competitive pressures and greater multi-nationalisation > of Japanese business are making the Japanese take a fresh look at > Management Education. Training programmes in Japanese corporations have

  1.  been based upon Confucian culture.
  2.  sought the socialization of newcomers
  3.  been targeted at people who have neither the capacity not the incentive to quit.
  4.  been teaching people to do menial tasks.
  5.  is better that the American system

Solution : sought the socialization of newcomers
Q239. > Management education gained new academic stature within US > Universities and greater respect from outside during the 1960s and > 1970s. Some observers attribute the competitive superiority of US > corporations to the quality of business education. In 1978, a > management professor, Herbert A. Simon of Carnegie Mellon University, > won the Nobel Prize in economics for his work in decision theory. And > the popularity of business education continued to grow since 1960’s > and the MBA has become known as the passport to the good life. By the > 1980s, however, US business schools faced critics who charged that > learning had little relevance to real business problems. Some went so > far as to blame business schools for the decline in US > competitiveness. Amidst the criticisms, four distinct arguments may be > discerned. The first is that business schools must be either > unnecessary or deleterious because Japan does so well without them. > Underlying these arguments is the idea that management ability cannot > be taught-one is either born with it or must acquire it over years of > practical experience. A second argument is that business schools are > overly academic and theoretical. They teach quantitative models that > have little application to real world problems. Third, they give > inadequate attention to shop floor issues, to production processes and > to management resources. Finally, it is argued that they encourage > undesirable attitudes in students, such as placing value in the short > term, on bottom line targets, while neglecting longer term > developmental criteria. In summary, some business executives complain > that MBA’s are incapable of making day-to-day peritoneal decisions, > unable to communicate and to motivate people, and unwilling to accept > responsibility for following through implementation plans. We shall > analyze these criticisms after having reviewed experiences in other > countries. In contrast to be the expansion and development of business > education in the United States and more recently in Europe, Japanese > business schools graduate no more than two hundred MBA’s each year. > The Keio Business School (KBS) was the only graduate school of > management in the entire country until the mid 1970s and it still > boasts the only two-year masters programme. The absence of business > schools in Japan would appear in contradiction with the high priority > placed upon learning by its Confucian culture. Confucian colleges > taught administrative skills as early as 1630 and Japan wholeheartedly > accepted Western learning following the Meiji restoration of 1868 when > hundreds of students were dispatched to universities in the U.S.A., > Germany, England and France, to learn the secrets of western > technology and modernization. Moreover, the Japanese educational > system is highly developed and intensely competitive and can be > credited for raising the literary and mathematical abilities of the > Japanese to the highest level in the world. Until recently, Japanese > corporations have not been interested in using either local or foreign > business schools for the development of their future executives. Their > in-company-training programmers have sought the socialization of > newcomers, the younger the better. The training is highly specific and > those who receive it. Have neither the capacity nor the incentive to > quit. The prevailing belief says Imai, is that management should be > borne out of experience and many years of effort and not learnt from > educational institutions. A 1960 survey of Japanese senior executives > confirmed that a majority (54%) believed that managerial capabilities > can be attained only on the job and not in universities. However, this > view seems to be changing, the same survey revealed that even as early > as 1960, 37% of senior executives felt that the universities should > teach integrate professional management. In the 1980s, a combination > of increased competitive pressures and greater multi-nationalisation > of Japanese business are making the Japanese take a fresh look at > Management Education. The author argues that

  1.  Japanese do not do without business schools as in generally perceived.
  2.  Japanese corporations do not hire MBAs because of traditions of universal and rigorous academic education, lifelong employment and strong group identification.
  3.  Placing MBAs in operational and menial tasks is a major factor in Japanese business success.
  4.  U.S. corporations should emulate the Japanese and change the way new recruits are inducted.
  5.  their highly developed and intensively competitive education system.

Solution : Japanese do not do without business schools as in generally perceived.

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Q240. > Management education gained new academic stature within US > Universities and greater respect from outside during the 1960s and > 1970s. Some observers attribute the competitive superiority of US > corporations to the quality of business education. In 1978, a > management professor, Herbert A. Simon of Carnegie Mellon University, > won the Nobel Prize in economics for his work in decision theory. And > the popularity of business education continued to grow since 1960’s > and the MBA has become known as the passport to the good life. By the > 1980s, however, US business schools faced critics who charged that > learning had little relevance to real business problems. Some went so > far as to blame business schools for the decline in US > competitiveness. Amidst the criticisms, four distinct arguments may be > discerned. The first is that business schools must be either > unnecessary or deleterious because Japan does so well without them. > Underlying these arguments is the idea that management ability cannot > be taught-one is either born with it or must acquire it over years of > practical experience. A second argument is that business schools are > overly academic and theoretical. They teach quantitative models that > have little application to real world problems. Third, they give > inadequate attention to shop floor issues, to production processes and > to management resources. Finally, it is argued that they encourage > undesirable attitudes in students, such as placing value in the short > term, on bottom line targets, while neglecting longer term > developmental criteria. In summary, some business executives complain > that MBA’s are incapable of making day-to-day peritoneal decisions, > unable to communicate and to motivate people, and unwilling to accept > responsibility for following through implementation plans. We shall > analyze these criticisms after having reviewed experiences in other > countries. In contrast to be the expansion and development of business > education in the United States and more recently in Europe, Japanese > business schools graduate no more than two hundred MBA’s each year. > The Keio Business School (KBS) was the only graduate school of > management in the entire country until the mid 1970s and it still > boasts the only two-year masters programme. The absence of business > schools in Japan would appear in contradiction with the high priority > placed upon learning by its Confucian culture. Confucian colleges > taught administrative skills as early as 1630 and Japan wholeheartedly > accepted Western learning following the Meiji restoration of 1868 when > hundreds of students were dispatched to universities in the U.S.A., > Germany, England and France, to learn the secrets of western > technology and modernization. Moreover, the Japanese educational > system is highly developed and intensely competitive and can be > credited for raising the literary and mathematical abilities of the > Japanese to the highest level in the world. Until recently, Japanese > corporations have not been interested in using either local or foreign > business schools for the development of their future executives. Their > in-company-training programmers have sought the socialization of > newcomers, the younger the better. The training is highly specific and > those who receive it. Have neither the capacity nor the incentive to > quit. The prevailing belief says Imai, is that management should be > borne out of experience and many years of effort and not learnt from > educational institutions. A 1960 survey of Japanese senior executives > confirmed that a majority (54%) believed that managerial capabilities > can be attained only on the job and not in universities. However, this > view seems to be changing, the same survey revealed that even as early > as 1960, 37% of senior executives felt that the universities should > teach integrate professional management. In the 1980s, a combination > of increased competitive pressures and greater multi-nationalisation > of Japanese business are making the Japanese take a fresh look at > Management Education. The main difference between U.S. and Japanese corporations is:

  1.  that one employs MBAs, the other does not.
  2.  that U.S. corporations do not employ Japanese people.
  3.  the U.S. corporations pay more to fresh recruits.
  4.  in the process of selecting and orienting new recruits.
  5.  their highly specific in-company training programmes.

Solution : in the process of selecting and orienting new recruits.
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Solution :

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