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Reading Comprehension

Reading Comprehension: English Reading Comprehension Exercises with Answers, Sample Passages for Reading Comprehension Test for GRE, CAT, IELTS preparation

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English Reading Comprehension Test Questions and Answers. Improve your ability to read and comprehend English Passages

Q266. > By 1950, the results of attempts relate brain processes to mental > experience appeared rather discouraging. Such variations in size, > shape, chemistry, conduction speed, excitation threshold, and the like > as had been demonstrated in nerve cells remained negligible in > significance for any possible correlation with the manifold dimensions > of mental experience. Near the turn of the century, it had been > suggested by Hering that different modes of sensation, such as pain, > taste, and colour, might be correlated with the discharge of specific > kinds of nervous energy. However, subsequently developed methods of > recording and analyzing nerve potentials failed to reveal any such > qualitative diversity. It was possible to demonstrate by other methods > refined structural differences among neuron types; however, proof was > lacking that the quality of the impulse or its conduction was > influenced by these differences, which seemed instead to influence the > developmental patterning of the neural circuits. Although qualitative > variance among nerve energies was never rigidly disproved, the > doctrine was generally abandoned in favour of the opposing view, > namely, that nerve impulses are essentially homogeneous in quality and > are transmitted as “common currency” throughout the nervous system. > According to this, it is not the quality of the sensory nerve impulses > that determines the diverse conscious sensations they produce, but > rather the different areas of the brain into which they discharge, and > there is some evidence for this view. In one experiment, when an > electric stimulus was applied to a given sensory field of the cerebral > cortex of a conscious human subject, it produced a sensation of the > appropriate modality for that particular locus, that is, a visual > sensation from the auditory cortex, and so on. Other experiments > revealed slight variations in the size, number, arrangement, and > interconnection of the nerve cells, but as far as psycho neural > correlations were concerned, the obvious similarities of these sensory > fields to each other seemed much more remarkable than any of the > minute differences. However, cortical locus, in itself, turned out to > have little explanatory value. Studies showed that sensations as > diverse as those of red, black, green, and white, or touch, cold, > warmth, movement, pain, posture, and pressure apparently may arise > through activation of the same cortical areas. What seemed to remain > was some kind of differential patterning effects in the brain > excitation: it is the difference in the central distribution of > impulses that counts. In short, brain theory suggested a correlation > between mental experience and the activity of relatively homogeneous > nerve-cell units conducting essentially homogeneous impulses through > homogeneous cerebral tissue. To match the multiple dimensions of > mental experience, psychologists could only point to a limitless > variation in the spatio-temporal patterning of nerve impulses. The description of an experiment in which electric stimuli were applied to different sensory field of the cerebral cortex tends to support the theory that

  1.  the stimuli presence of different cortical areas cannot account for the diversity of mental experience.
  2.  variation in spatio-temporal patterning of nerve impulses correlates with variation in subjective experience.
  3.  nerve impulse are essentially homogeneous and are relatively unaffected as they travel through the nervous system.
  4.  the mental experiences produced by sensory nerve impulses are determined by the cortical area activated.
  5.  manner in which nerve impulse are conducted.

Solution : the mental experiences produced by sensory nerve impulses are determined by the cortical area activated.
Q267. > By 1950, the results of attempts relate brain processes to mental > experience appeared rather discouraging. Such variations in size, > shape, chemistry, conduction speed, excitation threshold, and the like > as had been demonstrated in nerve cells remained negligible in > significance for any possible correlation with the manifold dimensions > of mental experience. Near the turn of the century, it had been > suggested by Hering that different modes of sensation, such as pain, > taste, and colour, might be correlated with the discharge of specific > kinds of nervous energy. However, subsequently developed methods of > recording and analyzing nerve potentials failed to reveal any such > qualitative diversity. It was possible to demonstrate by other methods > refined structural differences among neuron types; however, proof was > lacking that the quality of the impulse or its conduction was > influenced by these differences, which seemed instead to influence the > developmental patterning of the neural circuits. Although qualitative > variance among nerve energies was never rigidly disproved, the > doctrine was generally abandoned in favour of the opposing view, > namely, that nerve impulses are essentially homogeneous in quality and > are transmitted as “common currency” throughout the nervous system. > According to this, it is not the quality of the sensory nerve impulses > that determines the diverse conscious sensations they produce, but > rather the different areas of the brain into which they discharge, and > there is some evidence for this view. In one experiment, when an > electric stimulus was applied to a given sensory field of the cerebral > cortex of a conscious human subject, it produced a sensation of the > appropriate modality for that particular locus, that is, a visual > sensation from the auditory cortex, and so on. Other experiments > revealed slight variations in the size, number, arrangement, and > interconnection of the nerve cells, but as far as psycho neural > correlations were concerned, the obvious similarities of these sensory > fields to each other seemed much more remarkable than any of the > minute differences. However, cortical locus, in itself, turned out to > have little explanatory value. Studies showed that sensations as > diverse as those of red, black, green, and white, or touch, cold, > warmth, movement, pain, posture, and pressure apparently may arise > through activation of the same cortical areas. What seemed to remain > was some kind of differential patterning effects in the brain > excitation: it is the difference in the central distribution of > impulses that counts. In short, brain theory suggested a correlation > between mental experience and the activity of relatively homogeneous > nerve-cell units conducting essentially homogeneous impulses through > homogeneous cerebral tissue. To match the multiple dimensions of > mental experience, psychologists could only point to a limitless > variation in the spatio-temporal patterning of nerve impulses. According to the passage, some evidences exist that the area of the cortex activated by a sensory stimulus determines which of the following? I. The nature of the nerve impulse. II. The modality of the sensory experience. III. Qualitative differences within a modality.

  1.  II only
  2.  III only
  3.  I and II only
  4.  II and III only
  5.  none of these.

Solution : II only

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Q268. > By 1950, the results of attempts relate brain processes to mental > experience appeared rather discouraging. Such variations in size, > shape, chemistry, conduction speed, excitation threshold, and the like > as had been demonstrated in nerve cells remained negligible in > significance for any possible correlation with the manifold dimensions > of mental experience. Near the turn of the century, it had been > suggested by Hering that different modes of sensation, such as pain, > taste, and colour, might be correlated with the discharge of specific > kinds of nervous energy. However, subsequently developed methods of > recording and analyzing nerve potentials failed to reveal any such > qualitative diversity. It was possible to demonstrate by other methods > refined structural differences among neuron types; however, proof was > lacking that the quality of the impulse or its conduction was > influenced by these differences, which seemed instead to influence the > developmental patterning of the neural circuits. Although qualitative > variance among nerve energies was never rigidly disproved, the > doctrine was generally abandoned in favour of the opposing view, > namely, that nerve impulses are essentially homogeneous in quality and > are transmitted as “common currency” throughout the nervous system. > According to this, it is not the quality of the sensory nerve impulses > that determines the diverse conscious sensations they produce, but > rather the different areas of the brain into which they discharge, and > there is some evidence for this view. In one experiment, when an > electric stimulus was applied to a given sensory field of the cerebral > cortex of a conscious human subject, it produced a sensation of the > appropriate modality for that particular locus, that is, a visual > sensation from the auditory cortex, and so on. Other experiments > revealed slight variations in the size, number, arrangement, and > interconnection of the nerve cells, but as far as psycho neural > correlations were concerned, the obvious similarities of these sensory > fields to each other seemed much more remarkable than any of the > minute differences. However, cortical locus, in itself, turned out to > have little explanatory value. Studies showed that sensations as > diverse as those of red, black, green, and white, or touch, cold, > warmth, movement, pain, posture, and pressure apparently may arise > through activation of the same cortical areas. What seemed to remain > was some kind of differential patterning effects in the brain > excitation: it is the difference in the central distribution of > impulses that counts. In short, brain theory suggested a correlation > between mental experience and the activity of relatively homogeneous > nerve-cell units conducting essentially homogeneous impulses through > homogeneous cerebral tissue. To match the multiple dimensions of > mental experience, psychologists could only point to a limitless > variation in the spatio-temporal patterning of nerve impulses. The passage can most accurately be described as a discussion concerning historical views of the

  1.  anatomy of the brain.
  2.  physiological correlates of mental experience.
  3.  manner in which nerve impulse are conducted.
  4.  mechanics of sense perception.
  5.  similar in origin to prejudice against the Jews.

Solution : physiological correlates of mental experience.
Q269. > By 1950, the results of attempts relate brain processes to mental > experience appeared rather discouraging. Such variations in size, > shape, chemistry, conduction speed, excitation threshold, and the like > as had been demonstrated in nerve cells remained negligible in > significance for any possible correlation with the manifold dimensions > of mental experience. Near the turn of the century, it had been > suggested by Hering that different modes of sensation, such as pain, > taste, and colour, might be correlated with the discharge of specific > kinds of nervous energy. However, subsequently developed methods of > recording and analyzing nerve potentials failed to reveal any such > qualitative diversity. It was possible to demonstrate by other methods > refined structural differences among neuron types; however, proof was > lacking that the quality of the impulse or its conduction was > influenced by these differences, which seemed instead to influence the > developmental patterning of the neural circuits. Although qualitative > variance among nerve energies was never rigidly disproved, the > doctrine was generally abandoned in favour of the opposing view, > namely, that nerve impulses are essentially homogeneous in quality and > are transmitted as “common currency” throughout the nervous system. > According to this, it is not the quality of the sensory nerve impulses > that determines the diverse conscious sensations they produce, but > rather the different areas of the brain into which they discharge, and > there is some evidence for this view. In one experiment, when an > electric stimulus was applied to a given sensory field of the cerebral > cortex of a conscious human subject, it produced a sensation of the > appropriate modality for that particular locus, that is, a visual > sensation from the auditory cortex, and so on. Other experiments > revealed slight variations in the size, number, arrangement, and > interconnection of the nerve cells, but as far as psycho neural > correlations were concerned, the obvious similarities of these sensory > fields to each other seemed much more remarkable than any of the > minute differences. However, cortical locus, in itself, turned out to > have little explanatory value. Studies showed that sensations as > diverse as those of red, black, green, and white, or touch, cold, > warmth, movement, pain, posture, and pressure apparently may arise > through activation of the same cortical areas. What seemed to remain > was some kind of differential patterning effects in the brain > excitation: it is the difference in the central distribution of > impulses that counts. In short, brain theory suggested a correlation > between mental experience and the activity of relatively homogeneous > nerve-cell units conducting essentially homogeneous impulses through > homogeneous cerebral tissue. To match the multiple dimensions of > mental experience, psychologists could only point to a limitless > variation in the spatio-temporal patterning of nerve impulses. Which of the following best summarizes the author’s opinion of the suggestion that different areas of the brain determine perceptions produced by sensory nerve impulses?

  1.  It is a plausible explanation, but it has not been completely proved.
  2.  It is the best explanation of brain processes currently available.
  3.  It is disproved by the fact that the various areas of the brain are psychologically very similar.
  4.  There is some evidence to support it, but it fails to explain the diversity of mental experience.
  5.  understood by Oriental people as ethnic competition.

Solution : There is some evidence to support it, but it fails to explain the diversity of mental experience.

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Q270. > For a business, still in a burgeoning state of development the > performance of the gem and jewelry sector in exports is gratifying. On > top of an over 50 percent growth during 2004-05, these exports are > poised to grow at a similar rate during the current year, if the trend > in the first half of the year is an indication. Data released by the > Gems and Jewelry Export Promotion Council show that Gems exports at > Rs. 2,363 crores during April-September 2005 were 51 percent higher > than during the corresponding period of 2004. Since there is a greater > acceleration in the tempo of exports in the second half of the year, > it appears that the target of gems and jewelry exports, pegged at Rs. > 5,000 crores are well within reach. Even more heartening is the fact > that the export flow has been broad based, though the pace has been > set by better showing in both jewelry and gem exports. This successful > incursion is the outcome of a conscious strategy to build export > infrastructure which includes the setting up of Gems and Jewelry > Export Zones, technology missions and a liberal policy under which > virtually the entire industry is thrown open to foreign direct > investment. Some incentives like access to domestic market for these > export-oriented units, based on the net value addition, also have > helped the export drive. Besides, the industry had made helped the > export drive. Besides, the industry had made efforts to capture new > markets, laid stress on quality of the product and became alive to > customer needs. However, in the case of jewelry exports, the actual > performance is behind the potential. With its endowment in terms of > jewelry designers, low costs and high productivity, India can emerge > as a major force in global jewelry exports by emphasizing on > customizing jewelry rather than relying on standard products. At the > same time, gems exports should not suffer by default. The recent data > given lie to the claim that we have a leeway in jewelry designing. > Over a period, this success on global marketing of our gems should > facilitate system integration, and to exports of value-added gems with > jewelry. As of now, what is significant is that we have carved a small > niche in the global market in an industry that is the cutting edge of > designing. Which of the following are responsible for substantial growth in exports in gems and jewelry sector? (A) Conscious strategy to build export infrastructure (B) Liberal policy (C) Government subsidy

  1.  All (A), (B) and (C)
  2.  Only (B) and (C)
  3.  Only (A) and (C)
  4.  Only (A) and (B)
  5.  None of these

Solution : Only (A) and (B)
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Solution :

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