reading-comprehension

Reading Comprehension

Reading Comprehension: English Reading Comprehension Exercises with Answers, Sample Passages for Reading Comprehension Test for GRE, CAT, IELTS preparation

assess-yourself
Take English Reading Comprehension Test
view-results
View English Reading Comprehension Test Results

English Reading Comprehension Test Questions and Answers. Improve your ability to read and comprehend English Passages

Q306. > A recent study has provided clues to predator-prey dynamics in the > late Pleistocene era. Researchers compared the number of tooth > fractures in present-day carnivores with tooth fractures in carnivores > that lived 36,000 to 10,000 years ago and that were preserved in the > Rancho La Brea tar pits in Los Angeles. The breakage frequencies in > the extinct species were strikingly higher than those in the > present-day species. In considering possible explanations for this > finding, the researchers dismissed demographic bias because older > individuals were not overrepresented in the fossil samples. They > rejected preservational bias because a total absence of breakage in > two extinct species demonstrated that the fractures were not the > result of abrasion within the pits. They ruled out local bias because > breakage data obtained from other Pleistocene sites were similar to > the La Brea data. The explanation they consider most plausible is > behavioral differences between extinct and present-day carnivores-in > particular, more contact between the teeth of predators and the bones > of prey due to more thorough consumption of carcasses by the extinct > species. Such thorough carcass consumption implies to the researchers > either that prey availability was low, at least seasonally, or that > there was intense competition over kills and a high rate of carcass > theft due to relatively high predator densities. The researchers’ conclusion concerning the absence of demographic bias would be most seriously undermined if it were found that

  1.  the older an individual carnivore is, the more likely it is to have a large number of tooth fractures
  2.  the average age at death of a present-day carnivore is greater than was the average age at death of a Pleistocene carnivore
  3.  in Pleistocene carnivore species, older individuals consumed carcasses as thoroughly as did younger individuals
  4.  the methods used to determine animals’ ages in fossil samples tend to misidentify many older individuals as younger individuals
  5.  data concerning the ages of fossil samples cannot provide reliable information about behavioral differences between extinct carnivores and present-day carnivores

Solution : the methods used to determine animals’ ages in fossil samples tend to misidentify many older individuals as younger individuals
Q307. > A recent study has provided clues to predator-prey dynamics in the > late Pleistocene era. Researchers compared the number of tooth > fractures in present-day carnivores with tooth fractures in carnivores > that lived 36,000 to 10,000 years ago and that were preserved in the > Rancho La Brea tar pits in Los Angeles. The breakage frequencies in > the extinct species were strikingly higher than those in the > present-day species. In considering possible explanations for this > finding, the researchers dismissed demographic bias because older > individuals were not overrepresented in the fossil samples. They > rejected preservational bias because a total absence of breakage in > two extinct species demonstrated that the fractures were not the > result of abrasion within the pits. They ruled out local bias because > breakage data obtained from other Pleistocene sites were similar to > the La Brea data. The explanation they consider most plausible is > behavioral differences between extinct and present-day carnivores-in > particular, more contact between the teeth of predators and the bones > of prey due to more thorough consumption of carcasses by the extinct > species. Such thorough carcass consumption implies to the researchers > either that prey availability was low, at least seasonally, or that > there was intense competition over kills and a high rate of carcass > theft due to relatively high predator densities. According to the passage, if the researchers had NOT found that two extinct carnivore species were free of tooth breakage, the researchers would have concluded that

  1.  the difference in breakage frequencies could have been the result of damage to the fossil remains in the La Brea pits
  2.  the fossils in other Pleistocene sites could have higher breakage frequencies than do the fossils in the La Brea pits
  3.  Pleistocene carnivore species probably behaved very similarly to one another with respect to consumption of carcasses
  4.  all Pleistocene carnivore species differed behaviorally from present-day carnivore species
  5.  predator densities during the Pleistocene era were extremely high

Solution : the difference in breakage frequencies could have been the result of damage to the fossil remains in the La Brea pits

Grammar Guru

Free Online Contest on English Grammar and Vocabulary.20 mins Only.

  • All Participants get Participation Certificates to boost your Resume
  • Cash Vouchers for the top 100 weekly winners

Participation Now using Laptop/ Desktop/ Tab/ Mobile.



Q308. > Archaeology as a profession faces two major problems. First, it is the > poorest of the poor. Only paltry sums are available for excavating and > even less is available for publishing the results and preserving the > sites once excavated. Yet archaeologists deal with priceless objects > every day. Second, there is the problem of illegal excavation, > resulting in museum-quality pieces being sold to the highest bidder. I > would like to make an outrageous suggestion that would at one stroke > provide funds for archaeology and reduce the amount of illegal > digging. I would propose that scientific archaeological expeditions > and governmental authorities sell excavated artifacts on the open > market. Such sales would provide substantial funds for the excavation > and preservation of archaeological sites and the publication of > results. At the same time, they would break the illegal excavator’s > grip on the market, thereby decreasing the inducement to engage in > illegal activities. You might object that professionals excavate to > acquire knowledge, not money. Moreover, ancient artifacts are part of > our global cultural heritage, which should be available for all to > appreciate, not sold to the highest bidder. I agree. Sell nothing that > has unique artistic merit or scientific value. But, you might reply, > everything that comes out of the ground has scientific value. Here we > part company. Theoretically, you may be correct in claiming that every > artifact has potential scientific value. Practically, you are wrong. I > refer to the thousands of pottery vessels and ancient lamps that are > essentially duplicates of one another. In one small excavation in > Cyprus, archaeologists recently uncovered 2,000 virtually > indistinguishable small jugs in a single courtyard. Even precious > royal seal impressions known as I’melekh handles have been found in > abundance-more than 4,000 examples so far. The basements of museums > are simply not large enough to store the artifacts that are likely to > be discovered in the future. There is not enough money even to catalog > the finds; as a result, they cannot be found again and become as > inaccessible as if they had never been discovered. Indeed, with the > help of a computer, sold artifacts could be more accessible than are > the pieces stored in bulging museum basements. Prior to sale, each > could be photographed and the list of the purchasers could be > maintained on the computer. A purchaser could even be required to > agree to return the piece if it should become needed for scientific > purposes. It would be unrealistic to suggest that illegal digging > would stop if artifacts were sold on the open market. But the demand > for the clandestine product would be substantially reduced. Who would > want an unmarked not when another was available whose provenance was > known, and that was dated stratigraphically by the professional > archaeologist who excavated it? The primary purpose of the passage is to propose

  1.  an alternative to museum display of artifacts
  2.  a way to curb illegal digging while benefiting the archaeological profession
  3.  a way to distinguish artifacts with scientific value from those that have no such value
  4.  the governmental regulation of archaeological sites
  5.  a new system for cataloging duplicate artifacts

Solution : a way to curb illegal digging while benefiting the archaeological profession
Q309. > Archaeology as a profession faces two major problems. First, it is the > poorest of the poor. Only paltry sums are available for excavating and > even less is available for publishing the results and preserving the > sites once excavated. Yet archaeologists deal with priceless objects > every day. Second, there is the problem of illegal excavation, > resulting in museum-quality pieces being sold to the highest bidder. I > would like to make an outrageous suggestion that would at one stroke > provide funds for archaeology and reduce the amount of illegal > digging. I would propose that scientific archaeological expeditions > and governmental authorities sell excavated artifacts on the open > market. Such sales would provide substantial funds for the excavation > and preservation of archaeological sites and the publication of > results. At the same time, they would break the illegal excavator’s > grip on the market, thereby decreasing the inducement to engage in > illegal activities. You might object that professionals excavate to > acquire knowledge, not money. Moreover, ancient artifacts are part of > our global cultural heritage, which should be available for all to > appreciate, not sold to the highest bidder. I agree. Sell nothing that > has unique artistic merit or scientific value. But, you might reply, > everything that comes out of the ground has scientific value. Here we > part company. Theoretically, you may be correct in claiming that every > artifact has potential scientific value. Practically, you are wrong. I > refer to the thousands of pottery vessels and ancient lamps that are > essentially duplicates of one another. In one small excavation in > Cyprus, archaeologists recently uncovered 2,000 virtually > indistinguishable small jugs in a single courtyard. Even precious > royal seal impressions known as I’melekh handles have been found in > abundance-more than 4,000 examples so far. The basements of museums > are simply not large enough to store the artifacts that are likely to > be discovered in the future. There is not enough money even to catalog > the finds; as a result, they cannot be found again and become as > inaccessible as if they had never been discovered. Indeed, with the > help of a computer, sold artifacts could be more accessible than are > the pieces stored in bulging museum basements. Prior to sale, each > could be photographed and the list of the purchasers could be > maintained on the computer. A purchaser could even be required to > agree to return the piece if it should become needed for scientific > purposes. It would be unrealistic to suggest that illegal digging > would stop if artifacts were sold on the open market. But the demand > for the clandestine product would be substantially reduced. Who would > want an unmarked not when another was available whose provenance was > known, and that was dated stratigraphically by the professional > archaeologist who excavated it? The author implies that all of the following statements about duplicate artifacts are true EXCEPT

  1.  a market for such artifacts already exists.
  2.  such artifacts seldom have scientific value
  3.  there is likely to be a continuing supply of such artifacts
  4.  museums are well supplied with examples of such artifacts
  5.  such artifacts frequently exceed in quality those already cataloged in museum collections

Solution : such artifacts frequently exceed in quality those already cataloged in museum collections

Campus Ambassador (Remote Internship)

Are you a college student? You can become a Campus Ambassador for LearningPundits. Promote our Online Contests to students from you college via email, Facebook, posters, WhatsApp and old-fashioned face to face communication
You will receive:
  • Stipend based on your performance
  • Internship Certificate to boost your Resume


Q310. > Archaeology as a profession faces two major problems. First, it is the > poorest of the poor. Only paltry sums are available for excavating and > even less is available for publishing the results and preserving the > sites once excavated. Yet archaeologists deal with priceless objects > every day. Second, there is the problem of illegal excavation, > resulting in museum-quality pieces being sold to the highest bidder. I > would like to make an outrageous suggestion that would at one stroke > provide funds for archaeology and reduce the amount of illegal > digging. I would propose that scientific archaeological expeditions > and governmental authorities sell excavated artifacts on the open > market. Such sales would provide substantial funds for the excavation > and preservation of archaeological sites and the publication of > results. At the same time, they would break the illegal excavator’s > grip on the market, thereby decreasing the inducement to engage in > illegal activities. You might object that professionals excavate to > acquire knowledge, not money. Moreover, ancient artifacts are part of > our global cultural heritage, which should be available for all to > appreciate, not sold to the highest bidder. I agree. Sell nothing that > has unique artistic merit or scientific value. But, you might reply, > everything that comes out of the ground has scientific value. Here we > part company. Theoretically, you may be correct in claiming that every > artifact has potential scientific value. Practically, you are wrong. I > refer to the thousands of pottery vessels and ancient lamps that are > essentially duplicates of one another. In one small excavation in > Cyprus, archaeologists recently uncovered 2,000 virtually > indistinguishable small jugs in a single courtyard. Even precious > royal seal impressions known as I’melekh handles have been found in > abundance-more than 4,000 examples so far. The basements of museums > are simply not large enough to store the artifacts that are likely to > be discovered in the future. There is not enough money even to catalog > the finds; as a result, they cannot be found again and become as > inaccessible as if they had never been discovered. Indeed, with the > help of a computer, sold artifacts could be more accessible than are > the pieces stored in bulging museum basements. Prior to sale, each > could be photographed and the list of the purchasers could be > maintained on the computer. A purchaser could even be required to > agree to return the piece if it should become needed for scientific > purposes. It would be unrealistic to suggest that illegal digging > would stop if artifacts were sold on the open market. But the demand > for the clandestine product would be substantially reduced. Who would > want an unmarked not when another was available whose provenance was > known, and that was dated stratigraphically by the professional > archaeologist who excavated it? Which of the following is mentioned in the passage as a disadvantage of storing artifacts in museum basements?

  1.  Museum officials rarely allow scholars access to such artifacts.
  2.  Space that could be better used for display is taken up for storage.
  3.  Artifacts discovered in one excavation often become separated from each other.
  4.  Such artifacts are often damaged by variations in temperature and humidity.
  5.  Such artifacts often remain uncatalogued and thus cannot be located once they are put in storage.

Solution : Such artifacts often remain uncatalogued and thus cannot be located once they are put in storage.
Q{{($index+1)+((page-1)*LIMITPERPAGE)}}.

  1.  

Solution :

Grammar Guru

Free Online Contest on English Grammar and Vocabulary.20 mins Only.

  • All Participants get Participation Certificates to boost your Resume
  • Cash Vouchers for the top 100 weekly winners

Participation Now using Laptop/ Desktop/ Tab/ Mobile.



Math Whiz

Free Online Contest on Aptitude and Reasoning.20 mins Only.

  • All Participants get Participation Certificates to boost your Resume
  • Cash Vouchers for the top 100 weekly winners

Participation Now using Laptop/ Desktop/ Tab/ Mobile.



Campus Ambassador (Remote Internship)

Are you a college student? You can become a Campus Ambassador for LearningPundits. Promote our Online Contests to students from you college via email, Facebook, posters, WhatsApp and old-fashioned face to face communication
You will receive:
  • Stipend based on your performance
  • Internship Certificate to boost your Resume


Preparing for Aptitude Tests ? Please go through our courses on Aptitude Questions and try to answer our Online Aptitude Test Questions on Quantitative Aptitude.
Interested in evaluating your Reasoning Skills ? Please go through our courses on Logical Reasoning and Non-Verbal Reasoning to answer our Reasoning Questions.
Interested in learning English and checking your English Grammar ? Do a quick grammar check to evaluate your Basic English Grammar Skills. Improve your English Vocabulary by going through these Vocabulary words.
Wondering how to make a resume ? These resume format for freshers might be helpful. You can also submit your Resume for Review and look and Resume samples available there.
Preparing for an HR Interview or Group Discussion ? These HR interview questions and answers could help you do well in a typical HR interview. These group discussion tips could also be useful.
Searching for jobs ? We have thousand of Fresher Jobs. Feel free to browse through our extensive list of online jobs.