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Reading Comprehension

Reading Comprehension: English Reading Comprehension Exercises with Answers, Sample Passages for Reading Comprehension Test for GRE, CAT, IELTS preparation

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English Reading Comprehension Test Questions and Answers. Improve your ability to read and comprehend English Passages

Q321. > As increasing dependence on information systems develops, the need for > such systems to be reliable and secure also becomes more essential. As > growing numbers of ordinary citizens use computer networks for > banking, shopping, etc., network security is potentially a massive > problem. Over the last few years the need for computer and information > system security has become increasingly evident, as web sites are > being defaced with greater frequency, more and more denial-of-service > attacks are being reported, credit card information is being stolen, > there is increased sophistication of hacking tools that are openly > available to the public on the Internet, and there is increasing > damage being caused by viruses and worms to critical information > system resources. At the organizational level, institutional > mechanisms have to be designed in order to review policies, practices, > measures, and procedures to review e-security regularly and assess > whether these are appropriate to their environment. It would be > helpful if organizations share information about threats and > vulnerabilities, and implement procedures for rapid and effective > cooperation to prevent, detect and respond to security incidents. As > new threat and vulnerabilities are continuously discovered there is a > strong need for cooperation among organizations and, if necessary, we > could also consider cross-border information sharing. We need to > understand threats and dangers that could be vulnerable to and the > steps that need to be taken to mitigate these vulnerabilities. We need > to understand success control systems and methodology, > telecommunication and network security, and security management > practice. We should be well versed in the area of application and > systems development security, cryptography, operations security and > physical security. The banking sector is poised for more challenges in > the near future. Customers of banks can now look forward to a large > array of new offerings by banks. From an era of mere competition, > banks are now cooperation among themselves so that the synergistic > benefits are share among all the players. This would result in the > formation of shared payment networks (a few shared ATM networks have > already been commissioned by banks), offering payment services beyond > the existing time zones. The Reserve Bank is also facilitating new > projects such as the Multi Application Smart Card project which, when > implemented, would facilitate transfer of funds using electronic means > and in a safe and secure manner across the length and breadth of the > country, with reduced dependence on paper currency. The opportunities > of e-banking or e-power in general need to be harnessed so that > banking is available to all customers in such a manner that they would > feel most convenient, and if required, without having to visit a > branch of a bank. All these will have to be accompanied with a high > level of comfort, which again boils down to the issue of e-security. > One of the biggest advantages accruing to banks in the future would be > the benefits that arise from the introduction of Real Time Gross > Settlement (RTGS). Funds management by treasuries of banks would be > helped greatly by RTGS. With almost 70 banks having joined the RTGS > system, more large value funds transfers are taking place through this > system. The implementation of Core Banking solutions by banks is > closely related to RTGS too. Core Banking will make anywhere banking a > reality for customers of each bank, while RTGS bridges the need for > inter-bank funds movement. Thus, the days of depositing a cheque for > collection and a long wait for its realization would soon be a thing > of the past for those customers who would opt for electronic movement > of funds, using the RTGS system, where the settlement would be on an > almost instantaneous basis. Core Banking is already in vogue in many > private sector and foreign banks; while its implementation is at > different stages amongst the public sector banks. IT would also > facilitate better and more scientific decision making within banks. > Information systems now provide decision makers in banks with a great > deal of information which, along with historical data and trend > analysis, help in the building up of efficient Management Information > Systems, This, in turn, would help in better Asset Liability > Management (ALM) which, in today’s would of hairline margins, is a key > requirement for the success of banks in their operational activities. > Another benefit which e-banking could provide for, relates to Customer > Relationship Management (CRM). CRM helps in stratification of > customers and evaluating customer need on a holistic basis which could > be paving the way for competitive edge for banks and complete customer > care for customers of banks. What, according to the passage, is the prerequisite to lessen the threats of hacking?

  1.  Effective measures to combat vulnerability
  2.  Environment-friendly gadgets to remedy damages
  3.  Detection and timely prevention of the threat
  4.  Effective mechanism to evaluate the e-security
  5.  None of these

Solution : Effective mechanism to evaluate the e-security
Q322. > As increasing dependence on information systems develops, the need for > such systems to be reliable and secure also becomes more essential. As > growing numbers of ordinary citizens use computer networks for > banking, shopping, etc., network security is potentially a massive > problem. Over the last few years the need for computer and information > system security has become increasingly evident, as web sites are > being defaced with greater frequency, more and more denial-of-service > attacks are being reported, credit card information is being stolen, > there is increased sophistication of hacking tools that are openly > available to the public on the Internet, and there is increasing > damage being caused by viruses and worms to critical information > system resources. At the organizational level, institutional > mechanisms have to be designed in order to review policies, practices, > measures, and procedures to review e-security regularly and assess > whether these are appropriate to their environment. It would be > helpful if organizations share information about threats and > vulnerabilities, and implement procedures for rapid and effective > cooperation to prevent, detect and respond to security incidents. As > new threat and vulnerabilities are continuously discovered there is a > strong need for cooperation among organizations and, if necessary, we > could also consider cross-border information sharing. We need to > understand threats and dangers that could be vulnerable to and the > steps that need to be taken to mitigate these vulnerabilities. We need > to understand success control systems and methodology, > telecommunication and network security, and security management > practice. We should be well versed in the area of application and > systems development security, cryptography, operations security and > physical security. The banking sector is poised for more challenges in > the near future. Customers of banks can now look forward to a large > array of new offerings by banks. From an era of mere competition, > banks are now cooperation among themselves so that the synergistic > benefits are share among all the players. This would result in the > formation of shared payment networks (a few shared ATM networks have > already been commissioned by banks), offering payment services beyond > the existing time zones. The Reserve Bank is also facilitating new > projects such as the Multi Application Smart Card project which, when > implemented, would facilitate transfer of funds using electronic means > and in a safe and secure manner across the length and breadth of the > country, with reduced dependence on paper currency. The opportunities > of e-banking or e-power in general need to be harnessed so that > banking is available to all customers in such a manner that they would > feel most convenient, and if required, without having to visit a > branch of a bank. All these will have to be accompanied with a high > level of comfort, which again boils down to the issue of e-security. > One of the biggest advantages accruing to banks in the future would be > the benefits that arise from the introduction of Real Time Gross > Settlement (RTGS). Funds management by treasuries of banks would be > helped greatly by RTGS. With almost 70 banks having joined the RTGS > system, more large value funds transfers are taking place through this > system. The implementation of Core Banking solutions by banks is > closely related to RTGS too. Core Banking will make anywhere banking a > reality for customers of each bank, while RTGS bridges the need for > inter-bank funds movement. Thus, the days of depositing a cheque for > collection and a long wait for its realization would soon be a thing > of the past for those customers who would opt for electronic movement > of funds, using the RTGS system, where the settlement would be on an > almost instantaneous basis. Core Banking is already in vogue in many > private sector and foreign banks; while its implementation is at > different stages amongst the public sector banks. IT would also > facilitate better and more scientific decision making within banks. > Information systems now provide decision makers in banks with a great > deal of information which, along with historical data and trend > analysis, help in the building up of efficient Management Information > Systems, This, in turn, would help in better Asset Liability > Management (ALM) which, in today’s would of hairline margins, is a key > requirement for the success of banks in their operational activities. > Another benefit which e-banking could provide for, relates to Customer > Relationship Management (CRM). CRM helps in stratification of > customers and evaluating customer need on a holistic basis which could > be paving the way for competitive edge for banks and complete customer > care for customers of banks. In what way does IT catalyse better decision-making? (A) By providing updated data and trend analysis. (B) By providing increasing opportunities of personal contacts. (C) By ensuring better asset-liability management.

  1.  A only
  2.  B only
  3.  C only
  4.  A and B only
  5.  All the three

Solution : A only

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Q323. > As increasing dependence on information systems develops, the need for > such systems to be reliable and secure also becomes more essential. As > growing numbers of ordinary citizens use computer networks for > banking, shopping, etc., network security is potentially a massive > problem. Over the last few years the need for computer and information > system security has become increasingly evident, as web sites are > being defaced with greater frequency, more and more denial-of-service > attacks are being reported, credit card information is being stolen, > there is increased sophistication of hacking tools that are openly > available to the public on the Internet, and there is increasing > damage being caused by viruses and worms to critical information > system resources. At the organizational level, institutional > mechanisms have to be designed in order to review policies, practices, > measures, and procedures to review e-security regularly and assess > whether these are appropriate to their environment. It would be > helpful if organizations share information about threats and > vulnerabilities, and implement procedures for rapid and effective > cooperation to prevent, detect and respond to security incidents. As > new threat and vulnerabilities are continuously discovered there is a > strong need for cooperation among organizations and, if necessary, we > could also consider cross-border information sharing. We need to > understand threats and dangers that could be vulnerable to and the > steps that need to be taken to mitigate these vulnerabilities. We need > to understand success control systems and methodology, > telecommunication and network security, and security management > practice. We should be well versed in the area of application and > systems development security, cryptography, operations security and > physical security. The banking sector is poised for more challenges in > the near future. Customers of banks can now look forward to a large > array of new offerings by banks. From an era of mere competition, > banks are now cooperation among themselves so that the synergistic > benefits are share among all the players. This would result in the > formation of shared payment networks (a few shared ATM networks have > already been commissioned by banks), offering payment services beyond > the existing time zones. The Reserve Bank is also facilitating new > projects such as the Multi Application Smart Card project which, when > implemented, would facilitate transfer of funds using electronic means > and in a safe and secure manner across the length and breadth of the > country, with reduced dependence on paper currency. The opportunities > of e-banking or e-power in general need to be harnessed so that > banking is available to all customers in such a manner that they would > feel most convenient, and if required, without having to visit a > branch of a bank. All these will have to be accompanied with a high > level of comfort, which again boils down to the issue of e-security. > One of the biggest advantages accruing to banks in the future would be > the benefits that arise from the introduction of Real Time Gross > Settlement (RTGS). Funds management by treasuries of banks would be > helped greatly by RTGS. With almost 70 banks having joined the RTGS > system, more large value funds transfers are taking place through this > system. The implementation of Core Banking solutions by banks is > closely related to RTGS too. Core Banking will make anywhere banking a > reality for customers of each bank, while RTGS bridges the need for > inter-bank funds movement. Thus, the days of depositing a cheque for > collection and a long wait for its realization would soon be a thing > of the past for those customers who would opt for electronic movement > of funds, using the RTGS system, where the settlement would be on an > almost instantaneous basis. Core Banking is already in vogue in many > private sector and foreign banks; while its implementation is at > different stages amongst the public sector banks. IT would also > facilitate better and more scientific decision making within banks. > Information systems now provide decision makers in banks with a great > deal of information which, along with historical data and trend > analysis, help in the building up of efficient Management Information > Systems, This, in turn, would help in better Asset Liability > Management (ALM) which, in today’s would of hairline margins, is a key > requirement for the success of banks in their operational activities. > Another benefit which e-banking could provide for, relates to Customer > Relationship Management (CRM). CRM helps in stratification of > customers and evaluating customer need on a holistic basis which could > be paving the way for competitive edge for banks and complete customer > care for customers of banks. What is the advantage of RTGS to the customers?

  1.  Anywhere banking
  2.  Instant realization of cheque
  3.  Easy withdrawal of cash
  4.  Hassle-free depositing of cash-loads
  5.  Availability of transaction facilities at any other bank

Solution : Availability of transaction facilities at any other bank
Q324. > As increasing dependence on information systems develops, the need for > such systems to be reliable and secure also becomes more essential. As > growing numbers of ordinary citizens use computer networks for > banking, shopping, etc., network security is potentially a massive > problem. Over the last few years the need for computer and information > system security has become increasingly evident, as web sites are > being defaced with greater frequency, more and more denial-of-service > attacks are being reported, credit card information is being stolen, > there is increased sophistication of hacking tools that are openly > available to the public on the Internet, and there is increasing > damage being caused by viruses and worms to critical information > system resources. At the organizational level, institutional > mechanisms have to be designed in order to review policies, practices, > measures, and procedures to review e-security regularly and assess > whether these are appropriate to their environment. It would be > helpful if organizations share information about threats and > vulnerabilities, and implement procedures for rapid and effective > cooperation to prevent, detect and respond to security incidents. As > new threat and vulnerabilities are continuously discovered there is a > strong need for cooperation among organizations and, if necessary, we > could also consider cross-border information sharing. We need to > understand threats and dangers that could be vulnerable to and the > steps that need to be taken to mitigate these vulnerabilities. We need > to understand success control systems and methodology, > telecommunication and network security, and security management > practice. We should be well versed in the area of application and > systems development security, cryptography, operations security and > physical security. The banking sector is poised for more challenges in > the near future. Customers of banks can now look forward to a large > array of new offerings by banks. From an era of mere competition, > banks are now cooperation among themselves so that the synergistic > benefits are share among all the players. This would result in the > formation of shared payment networks (a few shared ATM networks have > already been commissioned by banks), offering payment services beyond > the existing time zones. The Reserve Bank is also facilitating new > projects such as the Multi Application Smart Card project which, when > implemented, would facilitate transfer of funds using electronic means > and in a safe and secure manner across the length and breadth of the > country, with reduced dependence on paper currency. The opportunities > of e-banking or e-power in general need to be harnessed so that > banking is available to all customers in such a manner that they would > feel most convenient, and if required, without having to visit a > branch of a bank. All these will have to be accompanied with a high > level of comfort, which again boils down to the issue of e-security. > One of the biggest advantages accruing to banks in the future would be > the benefits that arise from the introduction of Real Time Gross > Settlement (RTGS). Funds management by treasuries of banks would be > helped greatly by RTGS. With almost 70 banks having joined the RTGS > system, more large value funds transfers are taking place through this > system. The implementation of Core Banking solutions by banks is > closely related to RTGS too. Core Banking will make anywhere banking a > reality for customers of each bank, while RTGS bridges the need for > inter-bank funds movement. Thus, the days of depositing a cheque for > collection and a long wait for its realization would soon be a thing > of the past for those customers who would opt for electronic movement > of funds, using the RTGS system, where the settlement would be on an > almost instantaneous basis. Core Banking is already in vogue in many > private sector and foreign banks; while its implementation is at > different stages amongst the public sector banks. IT would also > facilitate better and more scientific decision making within banks. > Information systems now provide decision makers in banks with a great > deal of information which, along with historical data and trend > analysis, help in the building up of efficient Management Information > Systems, This, in turn, would help in better Asset Liability > Management (ALM) which, in today’s would of hairline margins, is a key > requirement for the success of banks in their operational activities. > Another benefit which e-banking could provide for, relates to Customer > Relationship Management (CRM). CRM helps in stratification of > customers and evaluating customer need on a holistic basis which could > be paving the way for competitive edge for banks and complete customer > care for customers of banks. What, according to the author, should be the ultimate goal(s) of e-banking? (A) Customers’ convenience. (B) Avoidance of heavy footfall of customers in bank branches. (C) Protection of customers’ interests.

  1.  A and B only
  2.  B and C only
  3.  A and C only
  4.  All the three
  5.  None of these

Solution : A and C only

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Q325. > As increasing dependence on information systems develops, the need for > such systems to be reliable and secure also becomes more essential. As > growing numbers of ordinary citizens use computer networks for > banking, shopping, etc., network security is potentially a massive > problem. Over the last few years the need for computer and information > system security has become increasingly evident, as web sites are > being defaced with greater frequency, more and more denial-of-service > attacks are being reported, credit card information is being stolen, > there is increased sophistication of hacking tools that are openly > available to the public on the Internet, and there is increasing > damage being caused by viruses and worms to critical information > system resources. At the organizational level, institutional > mechanisms have to be designed in order to review policies, practices, > measures, and procedures to review e-security regularly and assess > whether these are appropriate to their environment. It would be > helpful if organizations share information about threats and > vulnerabilities, and implement procedures for rapid and effective > cooperation to prevent, detect and respond to security incidents. As > new threat and vulnerabilities are continuously discovered there is a > strong need for cooperation among organizations and, if necessary, we > could also consider cross-border information sharing. We need to > understand threats and dangers that could be vulnerable to and the > steps that need to be taken to mitigate these vulnerabilities. We need > to understand success control systems and methodology, > telecommunication and network security, and security management > practice. We should be well versed in the area of application and > systems development security, cryptography, operations security and > physical security. The banking sector is poised for more challenges in > the near future. Customers of banks can now look forward to a large > array of new offerings by banks. From an era of mere competition, > banks are now cooperation among themselves so that the synergistic > benefits are share among all the players. This would result in the > formation of shared payment networks (a few shared ATM networks have > already been commissioned by banks), offering payment services beyond > the existing time zones. The Reserve Bank is also facilitating new > projects such as the Multi Application Smart Card project which, when > implemented, would facilitate transfer of funds using electronic means > and in a safe and secure manner across the length and breadth of the > country, with reduced dependence on paper currency. The opportunities > of e-banking or e-power in general need to be harnessed so that > banking is available to all customers in such a manner that they would > feel most convenient, and if required, without having to visit a > branch of a bank. All these will have to be accompanied with a high > level of comfort, which again boils down to the issue of e-security. > One of the biggest advantages accruing to banks in the future would be > the benefits that arise from the introduction of Real Time Gross > Settlement (RTGS). Funds management by treasuries of banks would be > helped greatly by RTGS. With almost 70 banks having joined the RTGS > system, more large value funds transfers are taking place through this > system. The implementation of Core Banking solutions by banks is > closely related to RTGS too. Core Banking will make anywhere banking a > reality for customers of each bank, while RTGS bridges the need for > inter-bank funds movement. Thus, the days of depositing a cheque for > collection and a long wait for its realization would soon be a thing > of the past for those customers who would opt for electronic movement > of funds, using the RTGS system, where the settlement would be on an > almost instantaneous basis. Core Banking is already in vogue in many > private sector and foreign banks; while its implementation is at > different stages amongst the public sector banks. IT would also > facilitate better and more scientific decision making within banks. > Information systems now provide decision makers in banks with a great > deal of information which, along with historical data and trend > analysis, help in the building up of efficient Management Information > Systems, This, in turn, would help in better Asset Liability > Management (ALM) which, in today’s would of hairline margins, is a key > requirement for the success of banks in their operational activities. > Another benefit which e-banking could provide for, relates to Customer > Relationship Management (CRM). CRM helps in stratification of > customers and evaluating customer need on a holistic basis which could > be paving the way for competitive edge for banks and complete customer > care for customers of banks. Why is it obligatory that a system should be perfectly dependable?

  1.  To justify escalating dependence on system
  2.  To ensure security for the system
  3.  To disallow any pilferage whatsoever
  4.  To ascertain proper logistic support
  5.  None of these

Solution : To ensure security for the system
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  1.  

Solution :

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