reading-comprehension

Reading Comprehension

Reading Comprehension: English Reading Comprehension Exercises with Answers, Sample Passages for Reading Comprehension Test for GRE, CAT, IELTS preparation

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English Reading Comprehension Test Questions and Answers. Improve your ability to read and comprehend English Passages

Q326. > As increasing dependence on information systems develops, the need for > such systems to be reliable and secure also becomes more essential. As > growing numbers of ordinary citizens use computer networks for > banking, shopping, etc., network security is potentially a massive > problem. Over the last few years the need for computer and information > system security has become increasingly evident, as web sites are > being defaced with greater frequency, more and more denial-of-service > attacks are being reported, credit card information is being stolen, > there is increased sophistication of hacking tools that are openly > available to the public on the Internet, and there is increasing > damage being caused by viruses and worms to critical information > system resources. At the organizational level, institutional > mechanisms have to be designed in order to review policies, practices, > measures, and procedures to review e-security regularly and assess > whether these are appropriate to their environment. It would be > helpful if organizations share information about threats and > vulnerabilities, and implement procedures for rapid and effective > cooperation to prevent, detect and respond to security incidents. As > new threat and vulnerabilities are continuously discovered there is a > strong need for cooperation among organizations and, if necessary, we > could also consider cross-border information sharing. We need to > understand threats and dangers that could be vulnerable to and the > steps that need to be taken to mitigate these vulnerabilities. We need > to understand success control systems and methodology, > telecommunication and network security, and security management > practice. We should be well versed in the area of application and > systems development security, cryptography, operations security and > physical security. The banking sector is poised for more challenges in > the near future. Customers of banks can now look forward to a large > array of new offerings by banks. From an era of mere competition, > banks are now cooperation among themselves so that the synergistic > benefits are share among all the players. This would result in the > formation of shared payment networks (a few shared ATM networks have > already been commissioned by banks), offering payment services beyond > the existing time zones. The Reserve Bank is also facilitating new > projects such as the Multi Application Smart Card project which, when > implemented, would facilitate transfer of funds using electronic means > and in a safe and secure manner across the length and breadth of the > country, with reduced dependence on paper currency. The opportunities > of e-banking or e-power in general need to be harnessed so that > banking is available to all customers in such a manner that they would > feel most convenient, and if required, without having to visit a > branch of a bank. All these will have to be accompanied with a high > level of comfort, which again boils down to the issue of e-security. > One of the biggest advantages accruing to banks in the future would be > the benefits that arise from the introduction of Real Time Gross > Settlement (RTGS). Funds management by treasuries of banks would be > helped greatly by RTGS. With almost 70 banks having joined the RTGS > system, more large value funds transfers are taking place through this > system. The implementation of Core Banking solutions by banks is > closely related to RTGS too. Core Banking will make anywhere banking a > reality for customers of each bank, while RTGS bridges the need for > inter-bank funds movement. Thus, the days of depositing a cheque for > collection and a long wait for its realization would soon be a thing > of the past for those customers who would opt for electronic movement > of funds, using the RTGS system, where the settlement would be on an > almost instantaneous basis. Core Banking is already in vogue in many > private sector and foreign banks; while its implementation is at > different stages amongst the public sector banks. IT would also > facilitate better and more scientific decision making within banks. > Information systems now provide decision makers in banks with a great > deal of information which, along with historical data and trend > analysis, help in the building up of efficient Management Information > Systems, This, in turn, would help in better Asset Liability > Management (ALM) which, in today’s would of hairline margins, is a key > requirement for the success of banks in their operational activities. > Another benefit which e-banking could provide for, relates to Customer > Relationship Management (CRM). CRM helps in stratification of > customers and evaluating customer need on a holistic basis which could > be paving the way for competitive edge for banks and complete customer > care for customers of banks. Which of the following is/are recommended by the author to ensure security of banking transactions? (A) Continuous re-examination of policies and procedures. (B) Ensuring appropriateness of the security measures. (C) Cooperation among various users to identify and prevent threat.

  1.  A and B only
  2.  B and C only
  3.  A and C only
  4.  A Only
  5.  None of these

Solution : B and C only
Q327. > As increasing dependence on information systems develops, the need for > such systems to be reliable and secure also becomes more essential. As > growing numbers of ordinary citizens use computer networks for > banking, shopping, etc., network security is potentially a massive > problem. Over the last few years the need for computer and information > system security has become increasingly evident, as web sites are > being defaced with greater frequency, more and more denial-of-service > attacks are being reported, credit card information is being stolen, > there is increased sophistication of hacking tools that are openly > available to the public on the Internet, and there is increasing > damage being caused by viruses and worms to critical information > system resources. At the organizational level, institutional > mechanisms have to be designed in order to review policies, practices, > measures, and procedures to review e-security regularly and assess > whether these are appropriate to their environment. It would be > helpful if organizations share information about threats and > vulnerabilities, and implement procedures for rapid and effective > cooperation to prevent, detect and respond to security incidents. As > new threat and vulnerabilities are continuously discovered there is a > strong need for cooperation among organizations and, if necessary, we > could also consider cross-border information sharing. We need to > understand threats and dangers that could be vulnerable to and the > steps that need to be taken to mitigate these vulnerabilities. We need > to understand success control systems and methodology, > telecommunication and network security, and security management > practice. We should be well versed in the area of application and > systems development security, cryptography, operations security and > physical security. The banking sector is poised for more challenges in > the near future. Customers of banks can now look forward to a large > array of new offerings by banks. From an era of mere competition, > banks are now cooperation among themselves so that the synergistic > benefits are share among all the players. This would result in the > formation of shared payment networks (a few shared ATM networks have > already been commissioned by banks), offering payment services beyond > the existing time zones. The Reserve Bank is also facilitating new > projects such as the Multi Application Smart Card project which, when > implemented, would facilitate transfer of funds using electronic means > and in a safe and secure manner across the length and breadth of the > country, with reduced dependence on paper currency. The opportunities > of e-banking or e-power in general need to be harnessed so that > banking is available to all customers in such a manner that they would > feel most convenient, and if required, without having to visit a > branch of a bank. All these will have to be accompanied with a high > level of comfort, which again boils down to the issue of e-security. > One of the biggest advantages accruing to banks in the future would be > the benefits that arise from the introduction of Real Time Gross > Settlement (RTGS). Funds management by treasuries of banks would be > helped greatly by RTGS. With almost 70 banks having joined the RTGS > system, more large value funds transfers are taking place through this > system. The implementation of Core Banking solutions by banks is > closely related to RTGS too. Core Banking will make anywhere banking a > reality for customers of each bank, while RTGS bridges the need for > inter-bank funds movement. Thus, the days of depositing a cheque for > collection and a long wait for its realization would soon be a thing > of the past for those customers who would opt for electronic movement > of funds, using the RTGS system, where the settlement would be on an > almost instantaneous basis. Core Banking is already in vogue in many > private sector and foreign banks; while its implementation is at > different stages amongst the public sector banks. IT would also > facilitate better and more scientific decision making within banks. > Information systems now provide decision makers in banks with a great > deal of information which, along with historical data and trend > analysis, help in the building up of efficient Management Information > Systems, This, in turn, would help in better Asset Liability > Management (ALM) which, in today’s would of hairline margins, is a key > requirement for the success of banks in their operational activities. > Another benefit which e-banking could provide for, relates to Customer > Relationship Management (CRM). CRM helps in stratification of > customers and evaluating customer need on a holistic basis which could > be paving the way for competitive edge for banks and complete customer > care for customers of banks. Which of the following statements definitely False in the context of the passage? (A) Transfer of funds to any part of the country through electronic media is under active consideration. (B) Cooperation among various competing banks is helpful to all of them in sharing legitimate benefits. (C) Assessment of customer needs and their clustering in homogeneous groups provides competitive edge to banks.

  1.  Only A
  2.  Only B and C
  3.  Only A and C
  4.  All the three
  5.  None of these

Solution : Only A and C

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Q328. > As increasing dependence on information systems develops, the need for > such systems to be reliable and secure also becomes more essential. As > growing numbers of ordinary citizens use computer networks for > banking, shopping, etc., network security is potentially a massive > problem. Over the last few years the need for computer and information > system security has become increasingly evident, as web sites are > being defaced with greater frequency, more and more denial-of-service > attacks are being reported, credit card information is being stolen, > there is increased sophistication of hacking tools that are openly > available to the public on the Internet, and there is increasing > damage being caused by viruses and worms to critical information > system resources. At the organizational level, institutional > mechanisms have to be designed in order to review policies, practices, > measures, and procedures to review e-security regularly and assess > whether these are appropriate to their environment. It would be > helpful if organizations share information about threats and > vulnerabilities, and implement procedures for rapid and effective > cooperation to prevent, detect and respond to security incidents. As > new threat and vulnerabilities are continuously discovered there is a > strong need for cooperation among organizations and, if necessary, we > could also consider cross-border information sharing. We need to > understand threats and dangers that could be vulnerable to and the > steps that need to be taken to mitigate these vulnerabilities. We need > to understand success control systems and methodology, > telecommunication and network security, and security management > practice. We should be well versed in the area of application and > systems development security, cryptography, operations security and > physical security. The banking sector is poised for more challenges in > the near future. Customers of banks can now look forward to a large > array of new offerings by banks. From an era of mere competition, > banks are now cooperation among themselves so that the synergistic > benefits are share among all the players. This would result in the > formation of shared payment networks (a few shared ATM networks have > already been commissioned by banks), offering payment services beyond > the existing time zones. The Reserve Bank is also facilitating new > projects such as the Multi Application Smart Card project which, when > implemented, would facilitate transfer of funds using electronic means > and in a safe and secure manner across the length and breadth of the > country, with reduced dependence on paper currency. The opportunities > of e-banking or e-power in general need to be harnessed so that > banking is available to all customers in such a manner that they would > feel most convenient, and if required, without having to visit a > branch of a bank. All these will have to be accompanied with a high > level of comfort, which again boils down to the issue of e-security. > One of the biggest advantages accruing to banks in the future would be > the benefits that arise from the introduction of Real Time Gross > Settlement (RTGS). Funds management by treasuries of banks would be > helped greatly by RTGS. With almost 70 banks having joined the RTGS > system, more large value funds transfers are taking place through this > system. The implementation of Core Banking solutions by banks is > closely related to RTGS too. Core Banking will make anywhere banking a > reality for customers of each bank, while RTGS bridges the need for > inter-bank funds movement. Thus, the days of depositing a cheque for > collection and a long wait for its realization would soon be a thing > of the past for those customers who would opt for electronic movement > of funds, using the RTGS system, where the settlement would be on an > almost instantaneous basis. Core Banking is already in vogue in many > private sector and foreign banks; while its implementation is at > different stages amongst the public sector banks. IT would also > facilitate better and more scientific decision making within banks. > Information systems now provide decision makers in banks with a great > deal of information which, along with historical data and trend > analysis, help in the building up of efficient Management Information > Systems, This, in turn, would help in better Asset Liability > Management (ALM) which, in today’s would of hairline margins, is a key > requirement for the success of banks in their operational activities. > Another benefit which e-banking could provide for, relates to Customer > Relationship Management (CRM). CRM helps in stratification of > customers and evaluating customer need on a holistic basis which could > be paving the way for competitive edge for banks and complete customer > care for customers of banks. Computer-savvy citizens are also shared to transact on-line due to the following except

  1.  smuggling of vital information regarding credit cards
  2.  availability of hacking tools on the internet
  3.  damage by viruses to critical information
  4.  sophisticated, well-guarded on-line transaction devices
  5.  denial-of-service attacks that put valid customers to inconvenience

Solution : sophisticated, well-guarded on-line transaction devices
Q329. > Despite the economic crunch worldwide that saw pulverization of some > of the largest banking and finance giants, Indian banking houses have > managed to show positive growth this quarter. Some of India’s leading > national banks have posted a net profit rise of more than 40% over the > last quarter amid global turmoil. This would come as a big shot in the > arm for the investors and consumers of these banks even though > apprehension is mounting on other banking and broking firms worldwide. > One of the main reasons behind the success of these banks this > quarter, would be their direct backing by the Government of India. > People take solace in their investments in public sector watching the > bailout packages being cashed out by governments all over the world to > save big business houses. Other private banks in India have also > reported a substantial net profit over the last quarter. Given the > internal and domestic scenario, one cannot put this down as a mundane > achievement. While others are on a cost-cutting spree and firing > employees, Indian companies are actually working on boosting staffing > in banking and broking sector. This can be seen as a big boon in the > days to come when the current recession eases and the economy > gradually comes back on to the fast track. The finance minister has > assured Indian public about the sound health of all Indian banks. This > could also be evident from the fact that there have been no mergers > and takeovers in Indian banking sector in a contrast to world scenario > where finance houses are looking for mergers to cut costs on > operations. We definitely are not looking to thrive; rather we are > looking for growth. It is just that the pace of growth is a little > slow now as compared to a year or two before. These are hard times to > test the hard. The weak in business and career will be weeded out and > it is sometimes very beneficial for business in the long run. What, according to the author, is the reason for the success of Indian national banks in this quarter?

  1.  Indian national banks do not have any commitments in troubled foreign markets.
  2.  These banks can never face financial crisis because of their sheer size.
  3.  These banks are ready to give loans at a very low rate of interest.
  4.  The public is ready to invest in these banks because of the knowledge that these banks get strong support from the Government.
  5.  None of these

Solution : The public is ready to invest in these banks because of the knowledge that these banks get strong support from the Government.

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Q330. > Despite the economic crunch worldwide that saw pulverization of some > of the largest banking and finance giants, Indian banking houses have > managed to show positive growth this quarter. Some of India’s leading > national banks have posted a net profit rise of more than 40% over the > last quarter amid global turmoil. This would come as a big shot in the > arm for the investors and consumers of these banks even though > apprehension is mounting on other banking and broking firms worldwide. > One of the main reasons behind the success of these banks this > quarter, would be their direct backing by the Government of India. > People take solace in their investments in public sector watching the > bailout packages being cashed out by governments all over the world to > save big business houses. Other private banks in India have also > reported a substantial net profit over the last quarter. Given the > internal and domestic scenario, one cannot put this down as a mundane > achievement. While others are on a cost-cutting spree and firing > employees, Indian companies are actually working on boosting staffing > in banking and broking sector. This can be seen as a big boon in the > days to come when the current recession eases and the economy > gradually comes back on to the fast track. The finance minister has > assured Indian public about the sound health of all Indian banks. This > could also be evident from the fact that there have been no mergers > and takeovers in Indian banking sector in a contrast to world scenario > where finance houses are looking for mergers to cut costs on > operations. We definitely are not looking to thrive; rather we are > looking for growth. It is just that the pace of growth is a little > slow now as compared to a year or two before. These are hard times to > test the hard. The weak in business and career will be weeded out and > it is sometimes very beneficial for business in the long run. What does the phrase ‘shot in the arm’ as used in the passage mean?

  1.  Shock
  2.  Fear
  3.  Encouragement
  4.  Anxiety
  5.  None of these

Solution : Encouragement
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Solution :

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