reading-comprehension

Reading Comprehension

Reading Comprehension: English Reading Comprehension Exercises with Answers, Sample Passages for Reading Comprehension Test for GRE, CAT, IELTS preparation

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English Reading Comprehension Test Questions and Answers. Improve your ability to read and comprehend English Passages

Q346. > Two principles are involved in the controversy about the presence of > foreign controlled media in the country; the free flow of ideas and > images across national borders and the need to safeguard the national > interest and preserve cultural autonomy. Both are valid but both are > at loggerheads because each has been used to promote less lofty goals. > The first principle conforms to a moral imperative: freedom to > expression cannot rhyme with restrictions imposed by any government. > But the free flow rhetoric also clouds the fact that the powerful > Western, and especially American media, can and often do present, > subtly or brazenly, news in a manner that promotes Western political, > ideological and strategic interests. Besides, Western entertainment > programmes present lifestyles and values that run counter to the > lifestyles and values cherished by traditional societies. All this > explains why so many Indian newspapers, magazines and news agencies > have sought protection from the courts to prevent foreign publications > and news agencies from operating in the country. Their arguments are > weak on two counts. As the bitter debate on a new world information > and communication order demonstrated in the late seventies and early > eighties, many of those who resent Western ‘invasion’ in the fields of > information and culture are no great friends of democracy. Secondly, > the threat of such an ‘invasion’ has been aired by those media groups > in the developing countries that fear that their business interests > will be harmed if Western groups, equipped with large financial and > technological resources and superior management skills, are allowed to > operate in the country without let. The fear is valid but it goes > against the grain of the economic reform programme. The presence of > foreign newspapers and television channels will increase competition, > which, in the course of time, can only lead to the upgradation of > dynamic Indian newspapers and television channels, even while they > drive the rest out of the market. One way to strike a balance between > the two antagonistic principles would be to allow foreign media entry > into the country, provided the India state treats them at par with the > domestic media on all fronts. On the import of technology, for > instance, foreign media cannot be allowed duty concessions denied to > their Indian counterparts. Foreign media will also have to face legal > consequences should they run foul of Indian laws. Why, for example, > should the BBC, or Time magazine or The Economist get away by showing > a map of Kashmir, which is at variance with the official Indian map? > Why should they go scot-free when they allow secessionists and > terrorists to air their views without giving the government the right > to reply, or when they depict sexually explicit scenes, which would > otherwise not be cleared by the Censor Board? Since the government can > do precious little in the matter, especially about satellite > broadcasts, what if it should consider attaching the properties of the > offending parties? Demands of this kind are bound to be voiced unless > New Delhi makes it clear to the foreign media that they will have to > respect Indian susceptibilities, especially where it concerns the > country’s integrity and its culture. It may be able to derive some > inspiration from France’s successful attempts in the recent GATT to > protect its cinematography industry. Which of the following is the meaning of the phrase “at variance”, as used in the passage?

  1.  discrepancy
  2.  at large
  3.  in conformity
  4.  variable
  5.  differing

Solution : differing
Q347. > Two principles are involved in the controversy about the presence of > foreign controlled media in the country; the free flow of ideas and > images across national borders and the need to safeguard the national > interest and preserve cultural autonomy. Both are valid but both are > at loggerheads because each has been used to promote less lofty goals. > The first principle conforms to a moral imperative: freedom to > expression cannot rhyme with restrictions imposed by any government. > But the free flow rhetoric also clouds the fact that the powerful > Western, and especially American media, can and often do present, > subtly or brazenly, news in a manner that promotes Western political, > ideological and strategic interests. Besides, Western entertainment > programmes present lifestyles and values that run counter to the > lifestyles and values cherished by traditional societies. All this > explains why so many Indian newspapers, magazines and news agencies > have sought protection from the courts to prevent foreign publications > and news agencies from operating in the country. Their arguments are > weak on two counts. As the bitter debate on a new world information > and communication order demonstrated in the late seventies and early > eighties, many of those who resent Western ‘invasion’ in the fields of > information and culture are no great friends of democracy. Secondly, > the threat of such an ‘invasion’ has been aired by those media groups > in the developing countries that fear that their business interests > will be harmed if Western groups, equipped with large financial and > technological resources and superior management skills, are allowed to > operate in the country without let. The fear is valid but it goes > against the grain of the economic reform programme. The presence of > foreign newspapers and television channels will increase competition, > which, in the course of time, can only lead to the upgradation of > dynamic Indian newspapers and television channels, even while they > drive the rest out of the market. One way to strike a balance between > the two antagonistic principles would be to allow foreign media entry > into the country, provided the India state treats them at par with the > domestic media on all fronts. On the import of technology, for > instance, foreign media cannot be allowed duty concessions denied to > their Indian counterparts. Foreign media will also have to face legal > consequences should they run foul of Indian laws. Why, for example, > should the BBC, or Time magazine or The Economist get away by showing > a map of Kashmir, which is at variance with the official Indian map? > Why should they go scot-free when they allow secessionists and > terrorists to air their views without giving the government the right > to reply, or when they depict sexually explicit scenes, which would > otherwise not be cleared by the Censor Board? Since the government can > do precious little in the matter, especially about satellite > broadcasts, what if it should consider attaching the properties of the > offending parties? Demands of this kind are bound to be voiced unless > New Delhi makes it clear to the foreign media that they will have to > respect Indian susceptibilities, especially where it concerns the > country’s integrity and its culture. It may be able to derive some > inspiration from France’s successful attempts in the recent GATT to > protect its cinematography industry. Which of the following seems to be the most likely purpose of writing this passage?

  1.  To criticize foreign media
  2.  To highlight the exploitation by developed nations
  3.  To highlight the steps and caution to be taken about the entry of foreign media
  4.  To make the public aware of the technological and managerial superiority of western media
  5.  To prevent foreign media from entering our country

Solution : To highlight the steps and caution to be taken about the entry of foreign media

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Q348. > Two principles are involved in the controversy about the presence of > foreign controlled media in the country; the free flow of ideas and > images across national borders and the need to safeguard the national > interest and preserve cultural autonomy. Both are valid but both are > at loggerheads because each has been used to promote less lofty goals. > The first principle conforms to a moral imperative: freedom to > expression cannot rhyme with restrictions imposed by any government. > But the free flow rhetoric also clouds the fact that the powerful > Western, and especially American media, can and often do present, > subtly or brazenly, news in a manner that promotes Western political, > ideological and strategic interests. Besides, Western entertainment > programmes present lifestyles and values that run counter to the > lifestyles and values cherished by traditional societies. All this > explains why so many Indian newspapers, magazines and news agencies > have sought protection from the courts to prevent foreign publications > and news agencies from operating in the country. Their arguments are > weak on two counts. As the bitter debate on a new world information > and communication order demonstrated in the late seventies and early > eighties, many of those who resent Western ‘invasion’ in the fields of > information and culture are no great friends of democracy. Secondly, > the threat of such an ‘invasion’ has been aired by those media groups > in the developing countries that fear that their business interests > will be harmed if Western groups, equipped with large financial and > technological resources and superior management skills, are allowed to > operate in the country without let. The fear is valid but it goes > against the grain of the economic reform programme. The presence of > foreign newspapers and television channels will increase competition, > which, in the course of time, can only lead to the upgradation of > dynamic Indian newspapers and television channels, even while they > drive the rest out of the market. One way to strike a balance between > the two antagonistic principles would be to allow foreign media entry > into the country, provided the India state treats them at par with the > domestic media on all fronts. On the import of technology, for > instance, foreign media cannot be allowed duty concessions denied to > their Indian counterparts. Foreign media will also have to face legal > consequences should they run foul of Indian laws. Why, for example, > should the BBC, or Time magazine or The Economist get away by showing > a map of Kashmir, which is at variance with the official Indian map? > Why should they go scot-free when they allow secessionists and > terrorists to air their views without giving the government the right > to reply, or when they depict sexually explicit scenes, which would > otherwise not be cleared by the Censor Board? Since the government can > do precious little in the matter, especially about satellite > broadcasts, what if it should consider attaching the properties of the > offending parties? Demands of this kind are bound to be voiced unless > New Delhi makes it clear to the foreign media that they will have to > respect Indian susceptibilities, especially where it concerns the > country’s integrity and its culture. It may be able to derive some > inspiration from France’s successful attempts in the recent GATT to > protect its cinematography industry. Which of the following is the meaning of the phrase “at loggerheads”, as used in the passage?

  1.  in league with
  2.  unimportant
  3.  out of place
  4.  unsuited to each other
  5.  opposite to each other

Solution : unsuited to each other
Q349. > Economist, ethicists and business experts persuade us that honesty is > the best policy, but their evidence is weak. We hoped to find data > that would support their theories and thus, perhaps, encourage higher > standards of business behaviour. To our surprise, their pet theories > failed to stand up. Treachery, we found, can pay. There is no > compelling economic reason to tell the truth or keep one’s word. > Punishment for the treacherous in the real world is neither swift nor > sure. > Honesty is, in fact, primarily a moral choice. Business people do tell themselves that, in the long run, they will do well by doing > good. But there is little factual or logical basis for this > conviction. Without values, without a basic preference of right over > wrong, trust based on such delusion would crumble in the face of > temptation. Most of us choose virtue because we want to believe in > ourselves and because others respect and believe us. > And due to this, we should be happy. We can be proud of a system in which people are honest because they want to be, not because they > have to be. Materially, too, trust based on morality provides great > advantages. It allows us to join in great and exciting enterprises > that we could never undertake if we relied on economic incentives > alone. > Economists tell us that trust is enforced in the market place through retaliation and reputation. If you violate a trust, your > victim is apt to seek revenge and others are likely to stop doing > business with you, at least under favourable terms. A man or woman > with a reputation for fair dealing will prosper. Therefore, profit > maximisers are honest. This sounds plausible enough until you look for > concrete examples. Cases that apparently demonstrate the awful > consequences of trust turn out to be few and weak, while evidence that > treachery can pay seems compelling. According to the passage, what do economists and ethicists, want us to believe?

  1.  (a) Businessmen should always be honest
  2.  Businessmen cannot always be honest
  3.  Businessmen turn dishonest at times
  4.  Businessmen are honest only at times
  5.  Businessmen should always be dishonest

Solution : (a) Businessmen should always be honest

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Q350. > Economist, ethicists and business experts persuade us that honesty is > the best policy, but their evidence is weak. We hoped to find data > that would support their theories and thus, perhaps, encourage higher > standards of business behaviour. To our surprise, their pet theories > failed to stand up. Treachery, we found, can pay. There is no > compelling economic reason to tell the truth or keep one’s word. > Punishment for the treacherous in the real world is neither swift nor > sure. > > Honesty is, in fact, primarily a moral choice. Business people do tell themselves that, in the long run, they will do well by doing > good. But there is little factual or logical basis for this > conviction. Without values, without a basic preference of right over > wrong, trust based on such delusion would crumble in the face of > temptation. Most of us choose virtue because we want to believe in > ourselves and because others respect and believe us. > And due to this, we should be happy. We can be proud of a system in which people are honest because they want to be, not because they > have to be. Materially, too, trust based on morality provides great > advantages. It allows us to join in great and exciting enterprises > that we could never undertake if we relied on economic incentives > alone. > Economists tell us that trust is enforced in the market place through retaliation and reputation. If you violate a trust, your > victim is apt to seek revenge and others are likely to stop doing > business with you, at least under favourable terms. A man or woman > with a reputation for fair dealing will prosper. Therefore, profit > maximisers are honest. This sounds plausible enough until you look for > concrete examples. Cases that apparently demonstrate the awful > consequences of trust turn out to be few and weak, while evidence that > treachery can pay seems compelling. What did the author find out about the theory that ‘honesty is the best policy’?

  1.  It is correct on many occasions
  2.  It is correct for all businesses
  3.  It is a useless theory
  4.  It is a theory which seems to be correct only occasionally
  5.  It is a baseless theory

Solution : It is correct for all businesses
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