# Pattern Recognition

Pattern Recognition and Pattern Matching: Pattern Recognition Reasoning Questions and Answers. Tricks for solving Pattern Recognition Problems

## Pattern Recognition and Pattern Matching: Pattern Recognition Reasoning Questions and Answers. Tricks for solving Pattern Recognition Problems

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## Learning Pundits Content Team

# 5 TIPS on Cracking Aptitude Questions on Pattern Matching

Looking for Questions instead of tips?- You can directly jump to Non-Verbal Reasoning Test Questions on Pattern Recognition

__Tip #1:__ Find the sequence of transformations applied on the figures

Some common transformations that are followed in this type of questions are:

**Rotation:** A part or whole of the figure may be rotated by a certain angle.

** Illustration 1: **Select a suitable figure from the answer figures to replace (?)

In the figures, the shaded leaf rotates by 225⁰ in the clockwise direction while the un-shaded leaf rotates by 225⁰ in the anti-clockwise direction. Scanning through the options, we see that the 3^{rd} figure satisfies these conditions. Thus, the answer is *3.*

**Enclosure:** A specific part or whole of the figure may be enclosed in some shape.

**Sides/ Lines:** The number of sides/ lines in the figure may follow a certain progression.

** Illustration 2:** Select a suitable figure from the answer figures to replace (?)

In these figures, the polygon rotates 90⁰ Clock-Wise, gets smaller in size and gets enclosed by a figure with one less side than itself. So the last figure will have a rhombus enclosed in a triangle. Thus, the correct answer is *1.*

**Vertical/ Lateral Inversion:** The figure may be inverted vertically, laterally, or both during successive transformations.

** Illustration 3:** Select a suitable figure from the answer figures to replace (?)

Figure B is the result of vertical inversion of A. We may, thus, conclude that a figure is vertically inverted in the subsequent figure. Thus, the missing figure will be an inverted form of C. Looking at the answer figures, we see that figure 1 follows this transformation. Thus, the answer is ** 1**.

**Shifting:** A specific or whole of the figure may be shifted in any direction.

**Combination:** A figure may follow more than one of the above mentioned transformations.

** Illustration 4:** Select a suitable figure from the answer figures to replace (?)

Except for the dots, the remaining part of the figure gets inverted and shifts to the opposite side of the square boundary. Thus, in the final figure, the sign ‘<‘will be inverted and will shift to the left side of the square boundary. This will be figure 3 from the answer figures. Thus, the answer will be ** 3**.

__Tip #2:__ Break the figure into smaller parts to identify the pattern for figure completion

Following are some of the ways of splitting a figure into smaller parts:

**Geometry:** The figure may be broken into circles, triangles, quadrilaterals, polygons, etc. that overlap, touch each other, enclose some shape(s), or are just parts of the figure.

** Illustration 5: **Identify the figure that completes the pattern.

Each quarter of the triangle consists of 2 right angled triangles. Thus, option ** D** is correct.

** Illustration 6: **Identify the figure that completes the pattern.

The missing section should have 4 lines. One of these lines should touch the bottom left of the square and another should touch the top right. Only **(D)** matches these requirements.

__Tip #3:__ Classify the figures on the basis of sides, geometry or dimensions

Some of the common classification bases are as follows:

: Figures can be classified depending on the no. of sides they have.__No. of Sides__: The figures may be classified as triangles, quadrilaterals, circles, etc.__Type of geometry__: You may classify the figures as 2-D or 3-D figures.__Dimension__: Some figures may be complex, consisting of conjoined shapes, smaller shapes enclosed within larger ones and/or partially or completely overlapping shapes, while others might be simple.__Conjoined, enclosed, or overlapping__

** Illustration 7: **Group the given figures into 3 classes using each figure only once.

The given figures can be classified on the basis of number of sides. Figures 1, 6 and 9 have 3 sides each; 3, 4 and 7 have 4 sides each; 2, 5 and 8 have 5 sides each.

Answer: *1, 6, 9| 3, 4, 7| 2, 5, 8.*

** Illustration 8: **Group the given figures into 3 classes using each figure only once.

1, 2 and 7 are simple figures.

3, 5 and 9 each have one shape enclosing another smaller shape.

4, 6 and 8 each have two shapes each that are touching each other.

Thus, the given figures can be classified as:

*1, 2, 7| 3, 5, 9| 4, 6, 8.*

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__Tip #4:__ Analyze the options one by one and eliminate choices that do not follow the rule

** Illustration 9: **Choose the set of figures which follows the given rule.

**Rule: **Closed figures gradually become open and open figures gradually become closed.

The 1^{st} choice can be eliminated since in the 2^{nd} figure itself, the inner circle does not open, but is replaced by a triangle. In the next set, the inner square does not open in the 2^{nd} figure. All the figures in the 3^{rd} option follow the rule, with the rectangle opening up and the straight line inside it closing into a rhombus. Thus, the answer is ** (3)**.

** Illustration 10: **Choose the set of figures which follows the given rule.

**Rule: **As the circle decreases in size, its sectors increase in number.

In the 1^{st} option, though the size of the circle decreases, the no. of sectors remains the same. In the 2^{nd} option, the no. of sectors in the 4^{th} figure is less than that in the 3^{rd}. Again in the 3^{rd} choice, the no. of sectors in the 2^{nd} figure is less than that in the 3^{rd}. Thus, none of these options follow the rule. The correct answer is ** (D)** and we may confirm that in the 4

^{th}option, the size of the circle decreases consistently while the no. of sectors increases.

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__Tip #5:__ Complexity of a figure is determined by the no. of sides, shapes, sections, etc.

When a figure is said to become simpler, it means that one or more of the following happens:

If the no. of consistent lines of the figure continuously decreases, then it may be concluded that the figure is becoming simpler. In other words, if the no. of sectors of the figure keeps decreasing, then it is said to be becoming simpler.__Lines__:If a figure becomes simpler, the no. of shapes consisting some part or whole of the figure keeps on decreasing consistently.__Shapes__:The figures may also consist of certain curves. The extent or length of the figure keeps decreasing as the figure becomes simpler.__Curves__:At times, a part or whole of the figure opens up, thus making it simpler.__Opening of figure__:

** Illustration 11: **Choose the set of figures which follows the given rule.

**Rule:** The series becomes simpler as it proceeds.

Analyzing the sets one by one, we see:

In the 1^{st} set, the no. of sectors initially decreases, making the figure simpler, but then in the 5^{th} figure, it again increases. Similarly, in the 2^{nd} set, the complexity increases and decreases alternately. So none of them follow the rule. The figure in the 3^{rd} choice, however, keeps becoming simpler as the no. of leaves and lines inside the circle keeps decreasing. The correct answer is ** (3)**.

** Illustration 12: **Choose the set of figures which follows the given rule.

**Rule: **The series becomes more complex as it proceeds.

Analyzing the sets one by one, we see:

In the 1^{st} set, the last figure is simpler than its preceding one in that the curve forming the vein of the leaf shortens. Considering the 2^{nd} set, the 4^{th} figure is simpler than the 3^{rd} one since the lower left circle opens up. So, both these options are eliminated. Now, the 3^{rd} set keeps becoming complex as the no. of sectors, and then triangles (at the edges), keeps increasing. Answer: ** (3)**.

** Illustration 13: **Choose the set of figures which follows the given rule.

**Rule: **The series becomes more complex as it proceeds.

Again, we analyze the options one by one.

The 1^{st} set can be eliminated as it alternates between becoming simpler and complex owing to the no. of lines in the figure. The 2^{nd} option keeps becoming more complex as the no. of lines and hence, sectors, keeps increasing. Thus, the correct answer is ** (2)**.

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# Pattern Recognition

Pattern Recognition and Pattern Matching: Pattern Recognition Reasoning Questions and Answers. Tricks for solving Pattern Recognition Problems

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