unit-1-writing-paragraphs-1

Unit-1 Writing Paragraphs-1

The aim of this unit is to help you in a systematic manner to write good paragraphs.

Submit your question

The vast majority of people, wherever they live and whatever their occupation. come in contact with animals in one way or another and have to deal with them. It is obvious that the hunter has to know the ways of his quarry, that the farmer must be aware of the habits of his farmyard animals and of creatures that damage his crops; that the fisherman must know when and where to find his fish and how to outwit them. Even the modern city dweller meets animals. He may want to ward off the roaches in his kitchen or he may keep a dog or a bird and grow familiar with the way his pet behaves. All over the world, among primitive tribes as well as in modern society, there are those who delight in the observation of animals, and there is a growing awareness of the fact that sharing our world with our fellow creatures is like travelling together - we enjoy being surrounded by other beings who, like ourselves, are deeply absorbed in the adventure of living. There is a growing sense of marvel and also of affinity. 

(from Niko Tinbergen (ed.) 'An infant science' in Animal Behaviour, Time-Life Books) 

What title would you like to give this paragraph?



he vast majority of people, wherever they live and whatever their occupation. come in contact with animals in one way or another and have to deal with them. It is obvious that the hunter has to know the ways of his quarry, that the farmer must be aware of the habits of his farmyard animals and of creatures that damage his crops; that the fisherman must know when and where to find his fish and how to outwit them. Even the modern city dweller meets animals. He may want to ward off the roaches in his kitchen or he may keep a dog or a bird and grow familiar with the way his pet behaves. All over the world, among primitive tribes as well as in modern society, there are those who delight in the observation of animals, and there is a growing awareness of the fact that sharing our world with our fellow creatures is like travelling together - we enjoy being surrounded by other beings who, like ourselves, are deeply absorbed in the adventure of living. There is a growing sense of marvel and also of affinity. 

(from Niko Tinbergen (ed.) 'An infant science' in Animal Behaviour, Time-Life Books) 

Why does the hunter need to know 'the ways of his quarry’ ?

The vast majority of people, wherever they live and whatever their occupation. come in contact with animals in one way or another and have to deal with them. It is obvious that the hunter has to know the ways of his quarry, that the farmer must be aware of the habits of his farmyard animals and of creatures that damage his crops; that the fisherman must know when and where to find his fish and how to outwit them. Even the modern city dweller meets animals. He may want to ward off the roaches in his kitchen or he may keep a dog or a bird and grow familiar with the way his pet behaves. All over the world, among primitive tribes as well as in modern society, there are those who delight in the observation of animals, and there is a growing awareness of the fact that sharing our world with our fellow creatures is like travelling together - we enjoy being surrounded by other beings who, like ourselves, are deeply absorbed in the adventure of living. There is a growing sense of marvel and also of affinity. 

(from Niko Tinbergen (ed.) 'An infant science' in Animal Behaviour, Time-Life Books)

a) Give two examples of how a modern city-dweller comes in contact with animals.

b) Are animals always a source of pleasure for him? Which words tell you that sometimes they are not?



The vast majority of people, wherever they live and whatever their occupation. come in contact with animals in one way or another and have to deal with them. It is obvious that the hunter has to know the ways of his quarry, that the farmer must be aware of the habits of his farmyard animals and of creatures that damage his crops; that the fisherman must know when and where to find his fish and how to outwit them. Even the modern city dweller meets animals. He may want to ward off the roaches in his kitchen or he may keep a dog or a bird and grow familiar with the way his pet behaves. All over the world, among primitive tribes as well as in modern society, there are those who delight in the observation of animals, and there is a growing awareness of the fact that sharing our world with our fellow creatures is like travelling together - we enjoy being surrounded by other beings who, like ourselves, are deeply absorbed in the adventure of living. There is a growing sense of marvel and also of affinity. 

(from Niko Tinbergen (ed.) 'An infant science' in Animal Behaviour, Time-Life Books) 

Question: Find two verbs meaning more or less the same as 'take pleasure (in)’?

The vast majority of people, wherever they live and whatever their occupation. come in contact with animals in one way or another and have to deal with them. It is obvious that the hunter has to know the ways of his quarry, that the farmer must be aware of the habits of his farmyard animals and of creatures that damage his crops; that the fisherman must know when and where to find his fish and how to outwit them. Even the modern city dweller meets animals. He may want to ward off the roaches in his kitchen or he may keep a dog or a bird and grow familiar with the way his pet behaves. All over the world, among primitive tribes as well as in modern society, there are those who delight in the observation of animals, and there is a growing awareness of the fact that sharing our world with our fellow creatures is like travelling together - we enjoy being surrounded by other beings who, like ourselves, are deeply absorbed in the adventure of living. There is a growing sense of marvel and also of affinity. 

(from Niko Tinbergen (ed.) 'An infant science' in Animal Behaviour, Time-Life Books) 

Find an adjective which is equivalent to 'belonging to the earliest stage of development'?

The vast majority of people, wherever they live and whatever their occupation. come in contact with animals in one way or another and have to deal with them. It is obvious that the hunter has to know the ways of his quarry, that the farmer must be aware of the habits of his farmyard animals and of creatures that damage his crops; that the fisherman must know when and where to find his fish and how to outwit them. Even the modern city dweller meets animals. He may want to ward off the roaches in his kitchen or he may keep a dog or a bird and grow familiar with the way his pet behaves. All over the world, among primitive tribes as well as in modern society, there are those who delight in the observation of animals, and there is a growing awareness of the fact that sharing our world with our fellow creatures is like travelling together - we enjoy being surrounded by other beings who, like ourselves, are deeply absorbed in the adventure of living. There is a growing sense of marvel and also of affinity. 

(from Niko Tinbergen (ed.) 'An infant science' in Animal Behaviour, Time-Life Books) 

Find equivalents of the nouns a) wonder, b) relationship?

Most environmental scientists agree that human activity directly contributes to global warming. Luckily, most also agree that human activity also has the potential to reverse global warming. There are several changes that average Americans can make to lower their carbon footprints. The first change they can make is to reduce, reuse, and recycle as often as possible. A large amount of pollution is expelled in the production of new products; whereas, it requires no additional fossil fuels to reuse an item. Recycling, while still using fossil fuels to reprocess the product, consumes much less energy than creating a new item from scratch. Using public transportation is another way that Americans can reduce their carbon footprints. Cars are the single biggest contributor to greenhouse gases. Walking to work and school is even more beneficial. Lastly, more Americans can adopt alternative energy sources. Installing wind turbines and solar panels reduces our reliance on fossil fuels, which will reduce the harmful emissions they cause. By adopting all three of these changes, Americans can help ensure a brighter future for generations to come.

Find the topic of the paragraph?

In the year 1830 a French official unearthed, in the valley of the Somme, strange I implements of flint now recognized as weapons with which the men of the old I Stone Age made war. With these modest tools of death, it seems, Neanderthal men , from what is now Germany, and Cro-Magnon men from what is now France, fought fifty thousand years ago for the mastery of the continent, and, after a day of lusty battle, left perhaps a score of dead on the field. Twenty years ago modern Germans and modern Frenchmen fought again, in that same valley, for that same prize, with magnificent tools of death that killed ten thousand men in a day. One art alone has made indisputable progress in history and that is the art of war

( Adapted from Will Durant : 'Why Men Fight? )

a) What are the points of similarity between the events that took place in ancient and modern times? Give two instances.

b) What are the points of difference? Give two instances.

In the year 1830 a French official unearthed, in the valley of the Somme, strange I implements of flint now recognized as weapons with which the men of the old I Stone Age made war. With these modest tools of death, it seems, Neanderthal men , from what is now Germany, and Cro-Magnon men from what is now France, fought fifty thousand years ago for the mastery of the continent, and, after a day of lusty battle, left perhaps a score of dead on the field. Twenty years ago modern Germans and modern Frenchmen fought again, in that same valley, for that same prize, with magnificent tools of death that killed ten thousand men in a day. One art alone has made indisputable progress in history and that is the art of war

( Adapted from Will Durant : 'Why Men Fight? )

a) Was ancient man less violent than modern man? 

b) Why is a modern battle more dangerous?

In the year 1830 a French official unearthed, in the valley of the Somme, strange I implements of flint now recognized as weapons with which the men of the old I Stone Age made war. With these modest tools of death, it seems, Neanderthal men , from what is now Germany, and Cro-Magnon men from what is now France, fought fifty thousand years ago for the mastery of the continent, and, after a day of lusty battle, left perhaps a score of dead on the field. Twenty years ago modern Germans and modern Frenchmen fought again, in that same valley, for that same prize, with magnificent tools of death that killed ten thousand men in a day. One art alone has made indisputable progress in history and that is the art of war

( Adapted from Will Durant : 'Why Men Fight? )

a) What does the phrase 'for that same prize' refer to?

b) Give some examples of what you think are 'modest tools of death’ and 'magnificent tools of death'.

n Mother's Shadow

During its early weeks, it depends almost completely upon her, and she, in turn, fastens her attentions upon it, although from time to time she will allow the other females to hold and fondle it. Sheltered by its mother, the growing infant gradually widens its contact with the outside world. Though its first week is spent sleeping and nursing, by its second it is already stumbling about and being restrained by a yank of the tail or leg. Nothing could be more. important to the development of an infant Indian langur than its relationship with its mother. At four weeks, on unsteady feet, it ventures forth and discovers the world or at least that part of it within a safe three or four feet of its mother. 

[Adapted from Eimerl, S. and De Vors, I. (eds.) 'The Monkey's Success in the Trees* 1 in The Primates, Time-Life Books.] 

The topic sentence of the paragraph below is hidden somewhere within the paragraph. Find it and place it in the correct position?

Men have cleared away forests to make fields for growing crops. They have moved mountains to make room for roads and cities. They have built huge dams across 1 rivers to turn valleys into lakes, and they have built dykes to push back the sea and create more dry land to live on. Once everyone cheered at the progress that man made in changing his environment like this, but now many people are worried by the problems that such changes can bring. When the Aswan Dam was built across the * River Nile in Egypt, it was meant to help the farmers by giving them water when they needed it. Unfortunately, people did not realise that much of the nourishing food for plants in the river would be trapped by the dam, so the farmers’ crops would suffer. Also, hundreds of kilometres away at the mouth of the River Nile, less fresh water pours into the Mediterranean Sea. This means that the sea will become more salty md fewer fish will be able to live in it. When this happens, people who catch fish for their living will suffer.

[From Govil, M. and Subramaniam V. (eds.) Explorations, Madhuban Educational 1 lBooks.] 

Is there a topic sentence in the paragraph? Underline it, if it is there. If you don’t find a topic sentence, state the main idea of the paragraph in-your own words?

Most environmental scientists agree that human activity directly contributes to global warming. Luckily, most also agree that human activity also has the potential to reverse global warming. There are several changes that average Americans can make to lower their carbon footprints. The first change they can make is to reduce, reuse, and recycle as often as possible. A large amount of pollution is expelled in the production of new products; whereas, it requires no additional fossil fuels to reuse an item. Recycling, while still using fossil fuels to reprocess the product, consumes much less energy than creating a new item from scratch. Using public transportation is another way that Americans can reduce their carbon footprints. Cars are the single biggest contributor to greenhouse gases. Walking to work and school is even more beneficial. Lastly, more Americans can adopt alternative energy sources. Installing wind turbines and solar panels reduces our reliance on fossil fuels, which will reduce the harmful emissions they cause. By adopting all three of these changes, Americans can help ensure a brighter future for generations to come.

Identify the major details?

Mitosis is when a cell divides and replicates itself. There are four major steps in the process. The first step in mitosis is the prophase. The prophase occurs when the chromosomes in a cell squish together and become visible and the nucleolus disappears. The second step is the metaphase where the chromosomes attach to spindle apparatus. The third step is the anaphase. By the end of this stage, there are now two complete sets of chromosomes at either side of the cell. The last step of mitosis is the telophase, which is when the two sets of chromosomes separate into two separate cells. Some cells, including fly embryos, take less than ten minutes to divide, while others can take up to year to divide. Regardless of the time it takes, all mitosis will follow the same steps.

a) In which stage of mitosis does the cell have two complete sets of chromosomes?

b) How long does it take for mitosis to occur?

Most environmental scientists agree that human activity directly contributes to global warming. Luckily, most also agree that human activity also has the potential to reverse global warming. There are several changes that average Americans can make to lower their carbon footprints. The first change they can make is to reduce, reuse, and recycle as often as possible. A large amount of pollution is expelled in the production of new products; whereas, it requires no additional fossil fuels to reuse an item. Recycling, while still using fossil fuels to reprocess the product, consumes much less energy than creating a new item from scratch. Using public transportation is another way that Americans can reduce their carbon footprints. Cars are the single biggest contributor to greenhouse gases. Walking to work and school is even more beneficial. Lastly, more Americans can adopt alternative energy sources. Installing wind turbines and solar panels reduces our reliance on fossil fuels, which will reduce the harmful emissions they cause. By adopting all three of these changes, Americans can help ensure a brighter future for generations to come.

Identify the keywords that signal a topic sentence?

Most environmental scientists agree that human activity directly contributes to global warming. Luckily, most also agree that human activity also has the potential to reverse global warming. There are several changes that average Americans can make to lower their carbon footprints. The first change they can make is to reduce, reuse, and recycle as often as possible. A large amount of pollution is expelled in the production of new products; whereas, it requires no additional fossil fuels to reuse an item. Recycling, while still using fossil fuels to reprocess the product, consumes much less energy than creating a new item from scratch. Using public transportation is another way that Americans can reduce their carbon footprints. Cars are the single biggest contributor to greenhouse gases. Walking to work and school is even more beneficial. Lastly, more Americans can adopt alternative energy sources. Installing wind turbines and solar panels reduces our reliance on fossil fuels, which will reduce the harmful emissions they cause. By adopting all three of these changes, Americans can help ensure a brighter future for generations to come.

Look beyond the first sentence to identify the topic sentence?

Man has been able to spread across the earth so widely for four main reasons. First, he is a terrestrial animal, not restricted to the forest. Secondly, he can cross any natural barriers, such as deserts, oceans and mountains. Moreover, he can live off a very wide variety of food. Most important of all, he has developed culture; he has learned to make clothes and build fires which allow him to live in climates where he would otherwise perish. To a large extent, he shares some of these advantages with the monkeys. They, too, can move over unforested land. They, too, can cross some natural barriers, as they have the ability to swim. And they, too, can digest many kinds of food. Thus, a single species of baboon has spread across Africa from Dakar in the west to Ethiopia in the east, and south all the way to the Cape of Good Hope.. Similarly, Macaques have done at least as well. One species, the rhesus macaque, is equally at home in forest, in open cultivated fields, and inside heavily populated cities. 

from Eimer1,S. and De Vors, 1. (eds.), 'The Monkey's Success in the Trees'. in The Primates, Time-Life Books.] 

What is the most important reason that man has been able to range so widely across the earth?

There are a number of reasons why all public K-12 schools should require their students to wear uniforms. First, uniforms draw less attention to lower income students. In schools without mandatory uniforms, it is obvious who has money and who does not because the more affluent students have completely different outfits every day while lower income students may wear the same clothes every day. Wearing uniforms allows these students to wear the same outfit daily without calling attention to their inability to buy additional changes of clothes. Uniforms also prevent unnecessary distractions in the classroom. Currently, students can generally wear whatever they want. Clothing that calls attention to a student's body or advertises a controversial message can disturb others and interrupt valuable class time. Lastly, mandatory school uniforms develop boundaries for the student that translate into other arenas. By limiting what a student can wear to class, schools send the message that the school sets the tone and not the student. There are a number of studies that conclude that schools with mandatory uniforms experience significantly less classroom management issues than schools without uniform policies.

Identify the keywords that signal a topic sentence?

Two main circumstances govern the relationship of living things in the sea : the unbelievably lavish fruitfulness of marine life forms, and the utter ruthlessness with which the larger creatures eat the smaller ones. Somebody has calculated, for instance, that if all the eggs laid by codfish were hatched and grew to maturity, the Atlantic would be packed solid with codfish within six years. But nature does not let this happen. Only an infinitesimal fraction of all codfish eggs ever become full-sized cod, and wastage among other fish is as great. One sea creature in about 10 million escapes the usual violent death inside another sea creature. 

[from Leonard Engels (ed.) 'The Great Pyramid of Life' in The Sea, Time-Lift: Books.]

Find the opposites of:

a)barrenness, b)terrestrial, c)very large?

Mitosis is when a cell divides and replicates itself. There are four major steps in the process. The first step in mitosis is the prophase. The prophase occurs when the chromosomes in a cell squish together and become visible and the nucleolus disappears. The second step is the metaphase where the chromosomes attach to spindle apparatus. The third step is the anaphase. By the end of this stage, there are now two complete sets of chromosomes at either side of the cell. The last step of mitosis is the telophase, which is when the two sets of chromosomes separate into two separate cells. Some cells, including fly embryos, take less than ten minutes to divide, while others can take up to year to divide. Regardless of the time it takes, all mitosis will follow the same steps.

What are the four major steps involved in the process of mitosis?

Man has been able to spread across the earth so widely for four main reasons. First, he is a terrestrial animal, not restricted to the forest. Secondly, he can cross any natural barriers, such as deserts, oceans and mountains. Moreover, he can live off a very wide variety of food. Most important of all, he has developed culture; he has learned to make clothes and build fires which allow him to live in climates where he would otherwise perish. To a large extent, he shares some of these advantages with the monkeys. They, too, can move over unforested land. They, too, can cross some natural barriers, as they have the ability to swim. And they, too, can digest many kinds of food. Thus, a single species of baboon has spread across Africa from Dakar in the west to Ethiopia in the east, and south all the way to the Cape of Good Hope.. Similarly, Macaques have done at least as well. One species, the rhesus macaque, is equally at home in forest, in open cultivated fields, and inside heavily populated cities. 

from Eimer1,S. and De Vors, 1. (eds.), 'The Monkey's Success in the Trees'. in The Primates, Time-Life Books.] 

What are the three characteristics that the monkey shares with man?

There are a number of reasons why all public K-12 schools should require their students to wear uniforms. First, uniforms draw less attention to lower income students. In schools without mandatory uniforms, it is obvious who has money and who does not because the more affluent students have completely different outfits every day while lower income students may wear the same clothes every day. Wearing uniforms allows these students to wear the same outfit daily without calling attention to their inability to buy additional changes of clothes. Uniforms also prevent unnecessary distractions in the classroom. Currently, students can generally wear whatever they want. Clothing that calls attention to a student's body or advertises a controversial message can disturb others and interrupt valuable class time. Lastly, mandatory school uniforms develop boundaries for the student that translate into other arenas. By limiting what a student can wear to class, schools send the message that the school sets the tone and not the student. There are a number of studies that conclude that schools with mandatory uniforms experience significantly less classroom management issues than schools without uniform policies.

Find the topic of the paragraph?

There are a number of reasons why all public K-12 schools should require their students to wear uniforms. First, uniforms draw less attention to lower income students. In schools without mandatory uniforms, it is obvious who has money and who does not because the more affluent students have completely different outfits every day while lower income students may wear the same clothes every day. Wearing uniforms allows these students to wear the same outfit daily without calling attention to their inability to buy additional changes of clothes. Uniforms also prevent unnecessary distractions in the classroom. Currently, students can generally wear whatever they want. Clothing that calls attention to a student's body or advertises a controversial message can disturb others and interrupt valuable class time. Lastly, mandatory school uniforms develop boundaries for the student that translate into other arenas. By limiting what a student can wear to class, schools send the message that the school sets the tone and not the student. There are a number of studies that conclude that schools with mandatory uniforms experience significantly less classroom management issues than schools without uniform policies.

Identify the major details?



There are a number of reasons why all public K-12 schools should require their students to wear uniforms. First, uniforms draw less attention to lower income students. In schools without mandatory uniforms, it is obvious who has money and who does not because the more affluent students have completely different outfits every day while lower income students may wear the same clothes every day. Wearing uniforms allows these students to wear the same outfit daily without calling attention to their inability to buy additional changes of clothes. Uniforms also prevent unnecessary distractions in the classroom. Currently, students can generally wear whatever they want. Clothing that calls attention to a student's body or advertises a controversial message can disturb others and interrupt valuable class time. Lastly, mandatory school uniforms develop boundaries for the student that translate into other arenas. By limiting what a student can wear to class, schools send the message that the school sets the tone and not the student. There are a number of studies that conclude that schools with mandatory uniforms experience significantly less classroom management issues than schools without uniform policies.

Look beyond the first sentence to identify the topic sentence?

Two main circumstances govern the relationship of living things in the sea : the unbelievably lavish fruitfulness of marine life forms, and the utter ruthlessness with which the larger creatures eat the smaller ones. Somebody has calculated, for instance, that if all the eggs laid by codfish were hatched and grew to maturity, the Atlantic would be packed solid with codfish within six years. But nature does not let this happen. Only an infinitesimal fraction of all codfish eggs ever become full-sized cod, and wastage among other fish is as great. One sea creature in about 10 million escapes the usual violent death inside another sea creature. 

[from Leonard Engels (ed.) 'The Great Pyramid of Life' in The Sea, Time-Lift: Books.]

What are the two circumstances that govern the relationship of living things in the sea?

Two main circumstances govern the relationship of living things in the sea : the unbelievably lavish fruitfulness of marine life forms, and the utter ruthlessness with which the larger creatures eat the smaller ones. Somebody has calculated, for instance, that if all the eggs laid by codfish were hatched and grew to maturity, the Atlantic would be packed solid with codfish within six years. But nature does not let this happen. Only an infinitesimal fraction of all codfish eggs ever become full-sized cod, and wastage among other fish is as great. One sea creature in about 10 million escapes the usual violent death inside another sea creature. 

[from Leonard Engels (ed.) 'The Great Pyramid of Life' in The Sea, Time-Lift: Books.]

a) Under what circumstances would the Atlantic be packed with codfish within six years?

b) How does nature prevent this from happening?

Mitosis is when a cell divides and replicates itself. There are four major steps in the process. The first step in mitosis is the Pro-phase. The Pro-phase occurs when the chromosomes in a cell squish together and become visible and the nucleolus disappears. The second step is the Meta-phase where the chromosomes attach to spindle apparatus. The third step is the Ana-phase. By the end of this stage, there are now two complete sets of chromosomes at either side of the cell. The last step of mitosis is the Telo-phase, which is when the two sets of chromosomes separate into two separate cells. Some cells, including fly embryos, take less than ten minutes to divide, while others can take up to year to divide. Regardless of the time it takes, all mitosis will follow the same steps.

Suggest a title for this paragraph?

In the following exercise we have given you a topic sentence, the title, as well as some notes which might help you develop a paragraph. As you develop your paragraph, use only those points which will support the topic sentence and leave out the rest. Your paragraph should not be more than 100 words.

The Secret of the Cockroach's Survival 

Topic Sentence : The cockroach is one of the earth's oldest creatures, older than even the dinosaurs.

  • survived because it can live anywhere ......... 

      from coldest to warmest climate ........... 

      city as well as forest ............

  • cockroach is a clean insect 
  • can eat anything, including flower-buds, paint, soap, wood ......... 
  • some species are large, others are small 
  • can even live without food and water for months  
  • usually black or brown in colour. 
  • keeps off predatory animals because of dirty smell from scent glands

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was an attorney who went to South Africa to conduct his practice. There he saw for himself the system of apartheid. Once he was travelling on the train and he had bought a first class ticket. He was summarily thrown out of the train because of his race. That incident spurred him on to take up people’s causes and he made a mark in South Africa. Armed with his experience in South Africa, Gandhi returned to India and spearheaded the independence movement. Thanks to his efforts India was able to achieve independence without shedding any blood as Gandhi used non-violence as a tool to convince the British to grant independence to India. Gandhi proved that one committed person can move the masses and make a difference.

In the passage about Gandhi, what does the author want you to know about the topic?

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was an attorney who went to South Africa to conduct his practice. There he saw for himself the system of apartheid. Once he was travelling on the train and he had bought a first class ticket. He was summarily thrown out of the train because of his race. That incident spurred him on to take up people’s causes and he made a mark in South Africa. Armed with his experience in South Africa, Gandhi returned to India and spearheaded the independence movement. Thanks to his efforts India was able to achieve independence without shedding any blood as Gandhi used non-violence as a tool to convince the British to grant independence to India. Gandhi proved that one committed person can move the masses and make a difference.

What is NOT a supporting detail to the main idea?

The following sentences go together to form a complete paragraph, but they are in the wrong order. Keeping in mind the idea of coherence, put them in the right order. After you have done the exercise, you may check your answer with that given by us at the end.

a) When the box is removed, the ant will not continue on its former course, but will start 

    off rapidly in a new direction. 

b) This can easily be demonstrated by a simple experiment. 

c) Place a light-tight box over an ant carrying food back to its nest, and keep it imprisoned 

    for a few hours. 

d) This new route will differ from the old by exactly the angle that the sun has shifted 

    across the sky during the time the ant was imprisoned. 

e) Many insects rely upon the direction of the sun's rays as a sort of compass.

Man has been able to spread across the earth so widely for four main reasons. First, he is a terrestrial animal, not restricted to the forest. Secondly, he can cross any natural barriers, such as deserts, oceans and mountains. Moreover, he can live off a very wide variety of food. Most important of all, he has developed culture; he has learned to make clothes and build fires which allow him to live in climates where he would otherwise perish. To a large extent, he shares some of these advantages with the monkeys. They, too, can move over unforested land. They, too, can cross some natural barriers, as they have the ability to swim. And they, too, can digest many kinds of food. Thus, a single species of baboon has spread across Africa from Dakar in the west to Ethiopia in the east, and south all the way to the Cape of Good Hope.. Similarly, Macaques have done at least as well. One species, the rhesus macaque, is equally at home in forest, in open cultivated fields, and inside heavily populated cities. 

from Eimer1,S. and De Vors, 1. (eds.), 'The Monkey's Success in the Trees'. in The Primates, Time-Life Books.] 

Monkeys cross natural barriers like rivers by swimming. What are some of the devices that man uses to cross natural barriers?

Man has been able to spread across the earth so widely for four main reasons. First, he is a terrestrial animal, not restricted to the forest. Secondly, he can cross any natural barriers, such as deserts, oceans and mountains. Moreover, he can live off a very wide variety of food. Most important of all, he has developed culture; he has learned to make clothes and build fires which allow him to live in climates where he would otherwise perish. To a large extent, he shares some of these advantages with the monkeys. They, too, can move over unforested land. They, too, can cross some natural barriers, as they have the ability to swim. And they, too, can digest many kinds of food. Thus, a single species of baboon has spread across Africa from Dakar in the west to Ethiopia in the east, and south all the way to the Cape of Good Hope.. Similarly, Macaques have done at least as well. One species, the rhesus macaque, is equally at home in forest, in open cultivated fields, and inside heavily populated cities. 

from Eimer1,S. and De Vors, 1. (eds.), 'The Monkey's Success in the Trees'. in The Primates, Time-Life Books.] 

In the context of this passage, find a word 

i)    with the same meaning as 'limited'?

ii)   which is the opposite of 'thrive'?

We are gathered here today to mourn the loss of America’s mind….

That loss has occurred with distressing frequency over the years, often coming in times of hysteria and fear, often involving the demonization of some American subset for the actions of those with whom they share some cultural, racial or religious trait.

For instance, Americans of German descent were bullied and beset during the First World War in a nation that found it necessary to rename sauerkraut “Liberty Cabbage.” Americans of Japanese descent were imprisoned during the Second World War, many of them losing their homes and livelihoods.

You’d think that sordid history would make us wary of entreatments to blindly castigate our fellow Americans. And you would be mistaken...

List at least two examples of repetition in the excerpt. In addition to coherence, what is the specific effect of those examples of repetition?

We are gathered here today to mourn the loss of America’s mind….

That loss has occurred with distressing frequency over the years, often coming in times of hysteria and fear, often involving the demonization of some American subset for the actions of those with whom they share some cultural, racial or religious trait.

For instance, Americans of German descent were bullied and beset during the First World War in a nation that found it necessary to rename sauerkraut “Liberty Cabbage.” Americans of Japanese descent were imprisoned during the Second World War, many of them losing their homes and livelihoods.

You’d think that sordid history would make us wary of en treatments to blindly castigate our fellow Americans. And you would be mistaken...

Write at least one transitional word or phrase in the excerpt. What is the effect of that word or phrase?

In the following paragraph the transitional words and phrases are missing. Fill in the gaps by choosing the most appropriate words/phrases from the list given below : 

despite however also

yet but in the future 

Of all the sea's possibilities for man's future, the greatest may be its promise of an important increase in the world's food supply. Square mile for square mile, the sea is estimated to be more productive than the land. .....(i)…. at present the oceans supply only one or two per cent of man's food. ...(ii)... all that he is learning about the sea, man's relationship to it is still primitive; he is a hunter rather than a harvester. ...(iii)..., along some coasts oyster growers set out beds of oysters and fence out the oyster's enemies to increase the yield ...(iv)..., in the Philippines, Indonesia, Japan and China people already grow fish and prawns in freshwater ponds. ...(v)... this is just a beginning ....(vi)..., to meet the great needs of a rapidly expanding world population, man will have to farm the sea as he has for so long farmed the land.

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was an attorney who went to South Africa to conduct his practice. There he saw for himself the system of apartheid. Once he was travelling on the train and he had bought a first class ticket. He was summarily thrown out of the train because of his race. That incident spurred him on to take up people’s causes and he made a mark in South Africa. Armed with his experience in South Africa, Gandhi returned to India and spearheaded the independence movement. Thanks to his efforts India was able to achieve independence without shedding any blood as Gandhi used non-violence as a tool to convince the British to grant independence to India. Gandhi proved that one committed person can move the masses and make a difference.

In the passage about Gandhi, what does the author want you to know about the topic?

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Learning Pundits Content Team

Written on Jun 25, 2019 4:16:37 PM

The main idea of the topic is that one committed person such as Gandhi could move the masses and make a difference. Here, Gandhi was able to move the masses and force the British to grant independence.



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